The belief that there are natural energy paths that run through the earth. These paths can be detected in a variety of ways such as through dowsing. It is believed that ancient cultures placed objects such as standing stones or even temples at points where the paths converged. In the West, these lines of energy are often called Ley Lines. In the East, sciences developed around the study of these paths. In India, it was called Vaastu (or Vastu). In China, Vaastu evolved into Feng Shui. Importantly, if people know how, they can use this energy for a variety of purposes, such as healing and success.
Sometimes related to earth energies is the concept called the Gaia Theory. This is the idea that the earth and everything on it form a living, self-regulating entity. The energies of these living things form the basis of the earth energies.