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The Llewellyn Encyclopedia

Subject: Mythology and Folklore


Called the Number of the Beast of in the Book of Revelations, modern Christians use it as the number of Satan. Using the Greek numerology of the time, it probably referred to Nero who was opressing the early Christians. Others have pointed to other potential numerological associations ranging from the nation of Babylon to President Ronald Reagan (his first, middle, and last name each have six letters).

One of the most famous of spirits, also known as a demon or evil angel. Abaddon has been equated with Appolyon (spelled variously) and, by some writers, as the Devil himself. Also used as a name for the place of the dead.

One of the regents of the moon and often invoked in rituals involving emotions, fertility, childbirth, and female mysteries.

African little people, like leprechauns, but said to be only about two inches tall. Although obviously mythical, some believe that they may be based on the African bushmen who have a very short stature.

Abbots Bromley Horn Dance
A form of English ritual dance usually performed in September. The horns used at Abbots Bromley Manor in Staffordshire, England, come from reindeer that died some time around 1065 c.e.

(Also spelled Abadiel) During the War in Heaven, Abdiel refused to rebel against God, and argued with Satan, saying that Satan had to be weaker than God as God had created him. According to John Milton’s Paradise Lost, Abdiel flew away, leaving Satan and his supporters behind. You should call on Abdiel in any matters concerning faith in yourself and faith in God.

A little-known spirit whose major function seems to be uprooting large trees. If you cross his path, he would supposedly hit you with that tree.

A spirit evoked to help foretell the future, and who can provide military advice and even aid. Abigor has been described in different ways, including as a knight, a ghost, or riding on a winged horse.

Abrahamic Religions
Abrahamic religions trace their origins back to Abraham, who, according to tradition, gave birth to the Jewish and Muslim peoples. His story is featured in the Torah, Bible, and Koran. The Abrahamic religions include Judaism, Christianity and Islam, along with any religions related to or branching off from these three religions, such as Rastafarianism.

One of several angels who specialize in carrying prayers to the Throne of God…can be invoked if you are sending a desperate prayer for help.


A Greek spirit of the acanthus flower. She was once a nymph loved by Apollo the sun god. According to one myth, when she died Apollo transformed her into the sun loving acanthus plant. According to another myth she spurned him and scratched his face when he tried to rape her. In retribution he turned her into the plant. In yet another myth Acantha was a man who spurned Apollo’s advances and was turned into a nymph. Curiously, nymphs are associated with trees while the acanthus is a shrub or bush.

An angel who helps people become more patient and accepting.


The name, meaning "River of Woe," of one of the five rivers in Greek mythology that surround Hades. The other four rivers are the Cocytus ("River of Wailing"), the Lethe ("River of Forgetfulness"), the Pyriphlegethon ("The Fiery River"), and the Styx ("The Hateful River").


Name used by the Cyrenean Greeks for Beelzebub.

The spirit of the Cape of Good Hope. The Cape is an outcropping of land near the southernmost tip of Africa. Seeing the spirit is said to predict disaster for ships rounding the cape on the way to India. The former name of the Cape was the Cape of Storms.

(Gaulish) - An offering or ritual in which something is given to the Deuoi.

Adder's Tongue

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dogstooth Violet or Plantain.

The angel of independence, who looks after anyone involved in pioneering or adventurous activities. He also looks after Sagittarians and the month of November.

Biblical character who murdered his father, an Assyrian king, while the king was worshiping an idol. Later he became associated with a demon of pride and stubbornness.


She was Helios, the Greek sun god’s daughter and, like her sisters Circe and Pasiphae, a hypnotically beautiful woman, so beautiful and dazzlingly bright that when the earthborn Titans attacked the gods of Olympus, the earth mother Gaea placed Aega in a cave to hide her shimmering beauty. There she became Zeus’ nurse and he eventually put her among the stars. In other myths she was a descendant of Hephaestus, a nymph, or a goat. Her name may mean “a gale of wind,” and her star is in the constellation Capella, the rise of which coincided with the stormy season.

Aeon of Horus
The third and current Thelemic Aeon, characterized as the Aeon of the child and promoting individuality. Also referred to as the New Aeon.

Aeon of Horus
Following the channeling of Liber Legis—(which see)—The Book of the Law—in 1904, Crowley believed he was to lead a new age, the Aeon of Horus replacing the older matriarchal Aeon of Isis and the patriarchal Aeon of Osiris. The Aeon of Horus is based on the magical union of male and female polarities, and replaces all repressive religious traditions. According to Kenneth Grant, the Aeon of Horus will be followed by that of Maat, the Egyptian goddess of truth and justice.

Aeon of Isis
The first Thelemic Aeon, characterized by material power and worship of the Earth.

Aeon of Osiris
The second Thelemic Aeon, characterized by paternal power and worship of gods of sacrifice, death, and resurrection (notably Osiris and Christ). Also referred to as the Old Aeon.

Aetiological Myths
See Etiological Myth.

A stone that can supposedly be found in the nest of an eagle. Others say it can be found in an eagle’s neck or stomach. Magickally used to protect mother and child during birth. The stone has a smaller, inner stone, so it rattles. It’s also said to make you sober, bring wealth, victory and popularity.

A well-known spirit described in several grimoires. In the Goetia Agares is primarily known for teaching languages and causing earthquakes. Agares will also cause people to start dancing. The spirit can help stop runaways.

To the Egyptians, an agathodemon was a positive spirit with the head of a man and the body of a snake. The ancient Greeks believed they brought good fortune and health. They protected fields and vineyards, so drinking a glass of wine after meals honored them. They are the opposite of cacodemons.


The Voodoo Loa of the ocean, he protects all sea life as well as ships and boats. He is invoked using titles such as “Tadpole of the Pond” or “Shell of the Sea,” and is a protector of sailors and seafarers. His symbols include brightly colored oars and shells, and even small metallic fish. Specific rituals to him are typically performed near seas, rivers, or lakes, and you should have wet sponges and towels prepared for him for when he leaves the water. It is challenging for him to deal with the heat. In other rituals, he is called with the use of a conch trumpet.

Agwe is typically described as being a light-skinned mulatto with green eyes. He is one of the many lovers of Erzulie.

One of the four creative elements in magick. It is commonly associated with mental activity and is considered masculine in nature. In an occult sense, “masculine” refers to the characteristics of specific types of energy rather than to gender.

A concept within the Hawaiian Huna tradition. Aka is a sticky and elastic substance that, like the Western concept of ectoplasm, can stretch without breaking. In Huna, people are said to have three bodies. Each of these bodies has an etheric or “shadow” body. The shadow body is made of Aka. Aka threads or cords are the means by which all energy (mana) and information travel. The more you communicate with someone, the more your Aka threads intertwine.

An angel who helps people who have problems with infertility. These include conception, sterility, and lack of libido.


A Greek word meaning avenger, it was used as a title of Zeus in His role as the avenger of evil deeds, especially killings within a family. Later, the name was given to any spiritual entity that would punish wrongful human behavior. Still later, it became an insult similar to the concept of a scoundrel. In Christian terms, Alastor was a generic name for certain evil spirits, and specifically for a possessing spirit. Some have referred to it as the “evil genius of a house.”


A large sea bird with some species having a wingspan of up to twelve feet. Although being one of the largest birds of the sea, they are remarkable for their flying prowess. Their ability to fly great distances is due to their strength and their use of various types of soaring. It is believed that if it flies around a ship at sea for a long time there will be bad weather. If an albatross is killed, it is said to bring bad luck. Samuel Taylor Coleridge turned this into the famous poem, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.



A dwarf, sometimes called the King of the Dwarves, found in Old High German myths. In French he is called Oberon.


One of the three Greek Erinyes or Furies along with Megaera and Tisiphone. She is the Greek goddess of war and death. She was the daughter of Gaea impregnated by the blood (?) of Uranus resulting from Cronus’ castration of Uranus.


An early Greek goddess, daughter of Helios the sun, and Rhode. She was worshipped as a heroine on the island of Rhodes.

All-Seeing Eye

The image of an eye in a triangle, often with the indication or expanding rays of light or a “glory” around it. Its original source was the Egyptian image of the Eye of Horus. In Medieval times, the surrounding triangle was added, with Christians saying this represented the Trinity. Mystically, it has become associated with Freemasonry as early as 1797, symbolic of the Great Architect of the Universe who is believed to observe the thoughts and deeds of the Mason. Fifteen years earlier, it was adopted as part of the symbolism on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States. This implies that a Masonic influence on the Seal was unlikely.


A description of Odin, who is considered the father of all, both gods and men.


Popular in Germany, an Alraun was an image usually made from the root of a mandrake, although sometimes from an ash or other tree. It was supposed to be wrapped in a white cloth, offered food daily, bathed on Fridays, and kept in a box. If you did this it would bring good luck. If you didn’t, it would shriek until you paid attention to it. Alrauns could bring good luck and were used in various magickal rituals. Supposedly you can’t give it away or throw it away; you must sell it at a higher price than you paid for it.

The name Alraun is derived from the mythic Teutonic sorceress, Alrunes. The term was sometimes used to describe a magician or Witch.

An angel mentioned in the Book of Enoch. He enjoys helping people who work with the soil, such as gardeners and farers. He can also be called upon to increase the potency of magic spells.

Ambriel is the ruling angel of May. He can be invoked for any matters involving communication. He also assists people who are seeking new jobs or searching for more opportunities and responsibility.


The food (or some say drink or a special substance) on which the Greek gods lived.

The angel of truth. He can be called upon for help in any matters requiring honesty and integrity.

One of the spirits found in the Lesser Key of Solomon. He is said to bring love and tell of all things past and in the future.


Greek sea goddess. Originally the wife of Poseidon, she was later downplayed to merely being his consort and later to being merely symbolic of the sea. Her son was Triton and her daughter Rhode. 


One of the Danaids, she was an early earth goddess after whom a fountain was named. She is represented by a water pitcher.


Also known as Venus Anadyomene, her name means ”she who rises from the sea." She is a famous representation of Aphrodite, the sea-born Greek goddess of sexuality.

(“The Grace of God,” also known as Haniel, Hagiel, or Hanael) The angelic Chief of both the Order of Principalities and Virtues. He is als the Lord of Venus and Ruler of the Third Heaven. As a result, he can be invoked for any matters concerning love, romance, affection, sexuality, peace, harmony, and inner peace. Because of his association with love and affection, he is probably the most frequently invoked angel. Anael is believed to have taken Enoch to Heaven. Anael helps people who are engaged in creative pursuits, and endeavors to create beauty wherever he goes. Anael helps people overcome shyness and gain confidence in themselves.

One of the angels of fertility. Anahita can be invoked for help in any matters concerning fertility and pregnancy.

Analytic Psychology

Jungian Psychology.


A Greek personification of the abstractions “destiny,” “necessity,” and “fate.” She is often shown holding a spindle and is seen as the dictator of fate and circumstance. As the Orphic mystery religion grew, Ananke fell in importance, eventually replaced by Eros as a force opposing both fate and death.

Originally a Greek word that meant lifting something as an offering to the gods. The meaning has changed over time to virtually the opposite, including a curse (such as would be placed by a magician on another person) and part of the formula used by the Catholic church during the excommunication of a heretic. Other meanings include to be set apart, banished, exiled, or denounced.

The angel of prosperity. He can be invoked in any matters concerning money or finance.

Ancient Wisdom
“The Ancient Wisdom” remains a mystery, perhaps a myth, perhaps lost history of a time when “Men were Gods.” Or, was it when “The Gods walked on Earth?” or when “Space Visitors seeded the Earth?” However we treat it, the Ancient Wisdom purportedly included knowledge of great powers and energies, of technologies still surpassing those of the modern world, and of wisdom that would transform our present world into one of Peace, Prosperity, and Progress. It’s the real concept underlying the belief in the “New Age,” and in Novus Ordo Seclorum - a “New Order of the Ages. Real or not, we are pushing back the edge of known history and finding that the artifacts we see— the Great Pyramid, the Great Sphinx, the mountain monuments in Peru, and much more—are much older than previously believed and indicative of technologies beyond still to be “rediscovered” today. Was that Ancient Wisdom hidden away in the Tarot? Are whispers of it contained in the symbols and signs of Freemasonry? Is it waiting for us in the practices of Magick, Yoga, and the Martial Arts? Can it be glimpsed in the ecstasies of Sex Magick? The mystery remains, all our esoteric practices are founded in the belief that we can each solve the mystery and move beyond the still luminescence of the Ancients.


Although technically meaning a hermaphrodite, in occultism it refers to concepts and things that blend opposing aspects into one homogenous entity.


She was a princess in ancient Greece. In punishment for her mother’s bragging, she was chained to a rock to be a sacrifice to a sea monster. Her future husband, Perseus, saved her. She may have been a pre-Hellenic moon goddess seen as being under attack by the demon of darkness. The myth was so popular it was converted into the legend of St. George and the Dragon.

(Gaulish) - The Underworld / Otherworld / Netherworld which corresponds to the Greek Elysian Fields and Tartaros, and to the Teutonic Valhall and Hel. There are many isles of the Celtic Otherworld. Andumnos was later called Annwn in Welsh, and Andomhain in Early Irish (Gaelic).


Another name used for the Greek Pandora. This name means “She who sends up gifts” implying food plants.

Spelled in a variety of ways, including Angakok, it is a term used to describe a wise and spiritual figure who may function as a mediator and teacher. Traditionally, the Inuit or Eskimo people have rules or notions that compare to the Western concept of laws. There are three types: things to do, things to avoid, and things to follow. An Angakkuq could be called in to mediate when someone does not follow the rules. Also, a type of shaman. Techniques used by such a person include invocations, incantations, chanting of songs, weatherwork, spiritual protection, etc.

In Tibetan spirituality the empowerment in a particular ability, usually as passed from teacher to pupil.

A living creature usually identified as having to feed, having sense organs, a nervous system, and able to respond to stimuli. Plants are able to create organic molecules (needed for survival and growth) from inorganic ones, while animals generally cannot do so. Various animals are recognized as having spiritual qualities.

The scribe pictured on the Stele of Revealing.

("AHN-ikki") Finnish nighttime goddess. Known as "she of good name."

The Welsh Netherworld ruled by Arawn. Unlike many other Underworlds in mythology, Annwn is not a place of eternal torment or punishment, and mortals may visit it while still living. The legendary Wild Hunt, led by the god Herne, is said to commence from the gates of Annwn.


A title for the Greek Hera meaning “flowering one.”

A Christian concept of an evil person, several people, group, or entity who would pretend to be a world savior by producing all sorts of miracles and signs when, in fact, he/they are in total opposition to Christ and lead people to eternal damnation. Often mistakenly equated with Satan or the Devil. Throughout history, numerous people or groups have been attacked as being the Antichrist, most often due to opposing the religious or political aims of the writer. On the other hand, some have identified themselves with the Antichrist for a variety of reasons. This includes philosopher-writer Friedrich Nietzsche to occultist Aleister Crowley and his follower (and co-founder of Pasadena’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory) Jack Parsons.


Egyptian guardian of Isis. Anubis is the son of the goddess of the dead, Nephthys, by Osiris. Depicted as jackal-headed, or simply as the jackal god. God of protection. Judge and protector (and comforter) of the dead and therefore, god of the dead and of embalming. Protector of tombs.

(Pronounced “ah-nish”) Irish Celtic god of love, also a trickster character.


Egyptian Bull deity whose line continued even when that of the Pharoahs failed. Apis was the most important sacred animal in ancient Egypt and was the only such animal never shown as a human with an animal’s head. Probably originally a fertility god.


Greek term meaning "the destroyer." Obviously derived from the name of the Greek solar deity (and hence, god of growth), Apollo. This implies that the ancients understood that with energy of growth necessarily came the energy of destruction. With the rise of Christianity, Apollyon became a synonym of Satan. Although the name Apollyon appears in many grimoires, it is up to the magician using the grimoire to determine whether the use represents the positive and necessary energy of dissolution or is simply a Satanic alias.

A legendary medieval Witch in Italy whose name was popularized by Charles Godfrey Leland, popular nineteenth-century author and folklorist. According to legend, Aradia brought about the revival of the Old Religion, a pre-Christian European Witch sect that had been driven into hiding during the time of the Inquisition.


Anything, especially a spiritual concept, that is hidden. Singular of the better-known term, arcana

In the Kabalistic hierarchy of heaven, archangels are beings who carry out the will of God. Each has limitations and is associated with powers represented by aspects of the divine which, in turn, are represented by names of God. Rather than carry out the divine will themselves, they may achieve these goals by commanding the angels they control.

(Greek, “chief messenger/principal messenger”) A class of princely angels with authority over heavenly realms, early nations, or other angels. The term “archangel” does not actually appear in Jewish literature until almost modern times. Hebrew angelic terms include Irin (Watcher), Sar (Prince/Archon), or Sharet (Ministering angel).

The prefix “arch” means chief, principal, or most important. Consequently, archangels are among the most important angels. According to the Book of Revelation there are seven archangels. The Koran recognizes four archangels but names only two: Djibril (Gabriel) and Raphael, and Uriel are the best-known archangels.


An area on the coast of Dahomey (currently known as the Republic of Benin). It is from this area where the people often called aradas. This is also the source of the term Rada, a name for some of the oldest rites of Voodoo or Voudoun. The rites and rituals of this form of Voodoo are traditionally considered positive and beneficial.

See Erelim.


The Greek notion of excellence associated with the fulfillment of a purpose or function. It meant courage and strength in the face of adversity and was considered an aspiration for all people.


Daughter of King Minos of Crete, she aided Thesus in overcoming her half brother, the Minotaur. Bride of Dionysus. She may have been a Great Goddess of Crete and “Mistress of the Labrynth” or even a Snake Goddess. 

(“Lion of God”) Angel mentioned in the pseudepigraphal Book of Ezra and The Key of Solomon the King. He is believed to help Raphael cure illness and disease in humans, animals, and plants.


A Hebrew word that means “fierce lion.” In the Jewish Bible, it is associated with a king of Eliasar. Much later, it was the name given to a fallen angel controlled by Satan in Milton’s famous poem Paradise Lost, first published in 1667.

Ark of the Covenant
(Teiva ha-Eidut) A portable chest that served as the repository for the original Ten Commandments and the 13th Torah scroll written by Moses (the other twelve went to each of the tribes) during the Exodus. More importantly, the Ark served as a locus of God’s presence among the Children of Israel. At God’s commission the Biblical wonder-craftsman Bezalel built the ark while the Israelites sojourned in the desert.


As described in the Christian Bible, the final battle between good and evil marking the end of the world. It is a "mythical reality," an image that challenges us to resolve.

Angel who can be invoked when it is important to determine the truth of a matter.

Angel traditionally invoked in matters relating to labor and childbirth. Gabriel and Temeluch are invoked to help the child while it is in the womb, but it is Armisael who is responsible for the birth process.

Angelic Lord of Neptune. He looks after people who are involved in clairvoyancy and mediumship. He can also be invoked to help heal sick horses.

Ascended Masters

This term for highly spiritual beings who are non-physical yet interact with humans originated with Blavatsky and the Theosophists. Other terms include "Elder Brothers" and "Mahatmas." Some believe they were once humans who, through spiritual development, no longer need to incarnate. This makes them similar to the Buddhist concept of the Bodhisattva.


Ancient Greek God of health and healing.

Angel who is one of the regents of the sign of Taurus. He can be invoked on any matters involving love and romance.

Name of the goddess Astarte in Hebrew.


A demon, some say a king of demons, most famous for his appearance as the evil character in the apocryphal book of Tobit. Asmodeus also appears in Talmudic legends and has been known as the "King of Nine Hells," one of the "Seven Princes of Hell," and as a lust demon who perverts sexual desires.

Ass' Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Coltsfoot.


The 29th spirit given in the Goetia. He is described there as a mighty & strong duke, with the appearance of an ugly angel riding on an infernal spirit similar to a dragon. In his right hand is a viper. He will answer questions about the past, present and future. It adds that he will help you discover all secrets and help you with knowledge in all of the liberal sciences.

It seems rather clear that “he” is actually derived from the Phoenician goddess Astarte, herself derived from the Assyrian/Babylonian goddess Ishtar, an example of how the deities of one culture become the demons of cultures that follow.

In Tibetan spirituality a denizen of the Demi-God Realm.


In the ancient Greek myth, Atalanta was abandoned by her father who wanted a son, nursed by a bear and raised by hunters who tought her to fight and hunt. She took an oath of virginity to Artemis, and later was famed for being in foot races in which no man could outrun her to earn her as a bride.


A Greek word meaning “ruin, folly, delusion.” It referred to the actions of a hero who actions lead to death or downfall, usually because of hubris. A goddess of this name personifies this concept.

(ah-the-gen-awss) - Rebirth; an incarnation or manifestation of a trait, talent, concept, spirit or divinity into human form. It is usually genetically passed down.


Greek goddess of warfare, civilization, wisom, crafts, justice, strength. Patron goddess of Athens. 


Commonly called a "lost continent" in the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantis is veiled in myth and speculation with little in the way of supporting fact. Occultists have speculated about a superior civilization in Atlantis escaping before it sank into oblivion to establish the Egyptian and other advanced civilizations, giving their peoples a head start in magical wisdom.


Pronounced "Ohr-Ree-Ehl" in Hebrew, Auriel is the Archangel of the North and of elemental earth. Some traditions use other spellings and pronunciations.

The Celtic Land of the Blessed, similar to the concept of paradise. First used by Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 c.e. It was where King Arthur’s sword, Excalibur, was forged, and where Arthur went to heal after his final battle at Camlann. Famed also for its apples.

A symbol of power and light. In ancient Greece it was the symbol of thunder and Fire due to its tendency to produce sparks as it crashed loudly against armor in battle…[I]t became a symbol of blood sacrifice and later a symbol of royal blood. A double-headed axe was originally a symbol of matriarchal power, and of duality. In ancient Minoan Crete the double-bladed axe was a lunar symbol representing the waning and waxing crescent. In ancient times the double-headed axe was called a labrys.


The female counterpart of Dambala. She is sometimes considered to be a serpent and at other times considered to be a rainbow. Sometimes the rainbow and serpent are considered to be her symbols. Ayida is also considered to be a mother goddess and is very submissive and delicate. However, as a serpent with her mate Dambala (also a serpent), they are representative of the energies of sexuality. Erzulie is also a wife of Dambala.

Also known as Ayida Wedo, her “job” is to support or hold up the Earth. It is said that by grabbing her diadem you will be assured to have wealth.


The primal or archetypal Mambo (Voudoun high priestess). She is sometimes called Grande Ai-Zan or Ayizan Velekete. Ayizan, with her husband Loco, guards religious traditions, initiation, and healing powers. She is also the priestess for the revering of parents and ancestor worship. Ayizan is the Loa of commerce and trade. Her colors are yellow, gold, and white.

(“Whom God Helps”) Also Azriel. Azrael lives in the third heaven and has the monumental task of recording everybody’s names when they are born, and erasing them again when they die. In Jewish and Islamic lore he is considered the angel of death. This is probably because of his interest in reincarnation. He can be called upon when exploring past lives, or when investigating psychic topics.

The Great Mother, Sacred Whore, and priestess of Thelema; the archetypal woman.


Mother Earth. Also the "Scarlet Woman" as the ruling spirit of Earth. Crowley said Babalon was the goddess of the New Aeon as found in Thelema, the religion he founded in 1904. She represents the female sexual impulse and the most fertile Great Mother, the womb of all life and the mother of each of us. She can be invoked into an actual woman as priestess in working Sex Magick to manifest the energies of the Aeon of Horus. She is the Liberated Woman.

In Sex Magick she becomes the "Scarlet Woman" and the mixture of semen with menstrual blood is called the "menstruum of the lunar current." It is Babalon who gives birth to Life and Beauty, and who transforms men into Masters of the Universe for she frees them of fears and inhibitions.

Baby's Blood
A code word used by ancient Pagans to mean “strawberry juice.” It was placed in code so people could not copy secret herbal formulas. In retrospect, this choice for a code word was not a good one.


A Greek name for the god Dionysus which was adopted by the Romans. He was the deity of wine and winemaking, as well as of the grape harvest. Drinking the wine could result in drunkenness, however this could also be seen as a form of ritual madness, frenzy, or trance. Festivals dedicated to him were predecessors to the development and understanding of Greek theater. His wild female followers were known as maenads and his male followers were ithyphallic satyrs.

Backward Blessing

The reciting of The Lord’s Prayer backwards. It is considered part of a “Black Mass,” an anti-Christian practice.

A Hebrew word meaning “brilliance.” The Book of Brilliance, or Sepher ha-Bahir, is one of the earliest Kabalistic books. It focuses on a technique for meditation.

A less common name for Buffers, talismans made from Class VII “Phosphates” class. They have the chemical earth power to help promote stability, balance, and centering.

Angel who can be invoked to help in situations when you should forgive someone else, but find it difficult to do so.

A type of herb that has, or is believed to have, poisonous properties or will keep something away. Often used in combination with the name of what it is said to repel such as henbane or wolfsbane. In some instances, the herb is not poisonous in the sense of it killing or sickening a person, but rather, it may induce visions.

In general, something that is considered bad, evil, or destructive.

(or Barachiel) (“God’s Blessings”). Ruler of the Seraphim and governor of the month of February. He provides a positive outlook on life and good fortune. Gamblers desiring success with their wagers also invoke Barakiel.

Plural bardoi (Gaulish, Brittonic, Goidelic) - The old Celtic term for a singer or minstrel who sang praises of great heroes and chieftains, or satires (curses and insults).


Meaning “little king,” this mythical reptile has been described in a variety of ways. It’s called a “king” because on its head it has a feature that looks like a crown or mitre. It’s been said to have intensely-poisonous venom or poisonous breath or could kill by just looking at you.

A charm against the evil eye worn by children in ancient Greece. Shaped like a phallus, it was also used to protect homes, forges, and chariots. Other names for it include probaskanion and fascinum. In Rome it was called a satyrica sigma


See Bastet.


Ancient Egyptian goddess also known as Bast. Originally a fierce lioness (or woman with a lion’s head) and a protectoress, over time she evolved into a goddess with the appearance of a domesticated cat. The goddess of intuition, magick, animalistic mind. Because cats have eyes that allow them to see in very low light, Bastet is said to see the future and the past. Naturally, the cat is Her sacred animal.

Bat's Wing

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Holly Leaf, which is probably due to the similarity in appearance between an actual bat's wing and the leaf of the plant.

Bat's Wool

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Moss.

Bath Kol
(or Bat Qol) (“Heavenly Voice”) According to ancient tradition, it was Bath Kol who was first to ask Cain where his brother was. He is also believed to have visited rabbi Simion ben Yohai, reputed author of The Zohar, while he was in prison. Bath Kol helps people engaged in prophecy. Diviners can call out Bath Kol’s name to help understand an omen or intuition. The next words the diviner hears are believed to contain the answer.


A Greek goddess of pictured as an old woman (symbolic of the Crone aspect of the goddess), often shown in statues in postures similar in nature to the Sheila-Na-Gig. She attempted to cheer up Demeter who was mourning the loss of Persephone, her daughter. She told funny but lewd jokes, making her a goddess of laughter, and also indicates why her statues are so similar to the Sheila-Na-Gig. However, she also produced Demeter’s son, Iacchus, from under her skirts to comfort his mother.

Bear's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Lady's Mantle.

The priest of Thelema; the archetypal man.


First mentioned in Second Kings from the Bible, it was derived from the name of a Philistine god Zebub. Ba’al was simply a title meaning “lord,” so Ba’al Zebub or Beelzebub was worshiped in the ancient city of Ekron, located about 22 miles west of modern-day Jerusalem. Literally meaning “Lord of the Flies,” this deity was said to control and send away metaphoric flies representing a patient’s illness. Hence, Beelzebub was a god of healing. In Jewish myth he became a prince of demons, and in the Testament of Solomon, was said to incite murder and war. In Christianity, Beelzebub became another name for the Devil or part of a complex demonology where he actually led a revolt against the Devil.


One of the princes of Hell who has the curious ability of bringing people to the Devil by helping them create new things and inventions that make them rich. Probably began as an ancient Moabite deity known as Baal-Peor. The ancient Israelites became fond of this deity, and to bring them back to their own god, the priests demonized him, saying he would cause dissention, give wealth, and was associated with sexual deviancy.

There is an unusual prime number that is also palindromic, meaning that it reads the same left to right and right to left. Also known as a palprime, the one known as Belphegor’s Prime consists of the number one, followed by thirteen zeros, followed by 666, followed by thirteen more zeros, and finished with a one:


According to the grimoire the Arbatel of Magick, Bethor is the name of one of the so-called Olympian Planetary spirits. It is associated with Jupiter. He is a spirit of healing and long life, and controls 45 kings, 35 princes, 28 dukes, 21 counselors, 24 ministers, 7 messengers, and 29,000 legions of spirits.


A mythical animal that is a unicorn (famous for its unique single horn, jutting from its head) with two horns. It is believed to become fate due to its diet of kind and devoted husbands. It is also known as a "burrowing bicorn," as when it is chased it will quickly burrow into the ground. If captured, however, it is impossible to prove it is a bicorn because it will drop its horns just as some animals can drop their tails.

The female version of the bicorn is the Chichevache. Unlike the bicorn, it only eats obedient wives. Therefore, it is starving and emaciated.

Bird's Eye

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Germander or Speedwell. 

A gem associated with the month of birth. Over the ages and in different countries there have been many versions of birthstones. In order to make preparation and advertising of birthstones easier for jewelers, in 1912 a professional organization, the Jewelers of America, announced a list that has become the most popular in the U.S. and other countries. The list is:

January: Garnet
February: Amethyst
March: Aquamarine
April: Diamond
May: Emerald
June: Moonstone (or Pearl)
July: Ruby
August: Peridot
September: Sapphire
October: Opal (or Tourmaline)
November: Yellow Topaz (or Citrine)
December: Turquoise (or Blue Topaz, and as of 2002, Tanzanite)

Blood From a Head

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Lupine. 

Blood From a Shoulder

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Bear's Breeches, a type of Acanthus.

Blood of a Goose

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Mulberry tree's sap.

Blood of a Hamadryas Baboon

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means blood of a spotted gecko.

Blood of a Snake

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hematite.

Blood of an Eye

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means a Tamarisk Gall.

Blood of Ares

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Purslane. 

Blood of Hephaistos

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Wormwood. 

Blood of Hestia

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Chamomile. 

Bloody Fingers

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Foxglove.

Blue Jay

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Bay Laurel.

Boaz and Joachin
The pillars of light and darkness, mercy and severity, strength and stability, or spirit and matter than held the veil in the Temple of Solomon, the first Temple of Jerusalem. Boaz was King David’s great-grandfather. Joachin was a high priest.

Bone of an Ibis

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Buckthorn. 

Book of the Dead

More accurately the “Book of Coming Forth by Day,” this is a collection of ancient Egyptian funerary texts including magical spells that help guide the deceased through the Duat (underworld) during their afterlife.

Book of Thoth

A name given to many books supposedly written by the ancient Egyptian deity of writing, Thoth.

Book of Thoth

An old Egyptian story of a book, written by Thoth, that contains two spells. One allows the reader to understand what animals are saying. The other allows the reader to directly see the gods. The book was stolen by prince Neferkaptah. In punishment, the gods killed his wife and son. Neferkaptah commits suicide and the book is placed in his tomb.

Decades later, the book is stolen from the tomb, and he is convinced by a beautiful woman to kill his children an humiliate himself in front of the Pharaoh. It turns out this was an illusion created by Neferkaptah's ghost, so the thief returns the book, finds the bones of Neferkaptah's wife and son, and buries them all in Nerferkaptah's tomb.


Book of Thoth

A book on the theory, design, and use of the Tarot (that supposedly came from Thoth) written by Aleister Crowley. It explained a deck of cards, known as the Thoth Tarot, designed by Crowley and co-designed and painted by Frieda Harris. The deck was not published until after Crowley's death.

The creator deity in Hinduism.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. Although it often means gum from a cherry tree, it can be used to indicate the gum of any fruit tree.

The breath has always been associated with the spirit, or life force. Many ancient words for “breath” also mean “spirit.” Examples include: the Hebrew ruach, Greek pneuma, and Latin spiritus. The concept of breathing on something for luck has also been carried on for thousands of years. Gamblers still blow on their cards for luck today.

(from Irish breithamhain) - A medieval Irish judge or jurist; a specialist of the old Druidic class that survived Christianization.

Sir E. A. Wallis Budge (1857–1934) was the keeper of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum from 1892–1924). He translated and oversaw the publication of numerous Egyptian books, the most famous being the Book of the Dead. Although the text of that book was found in crypts, its actual name was The Book of Coming (or Going) Forth by Day. It is claimed by some that he was associated with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

Bull God
The bull was anciently revered in many areas of the world, especially where bulls (including wild bulls) were a primary source of meat. Some Wiccan traditions refer to the Horned God as a bull god.

Bull's Blood

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Horehound. 

Bull's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Coltsfoot.

Bull's Semen

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Eggs of the Blister Beetle.


Mythical Aboriginal Australian creature also known as a klanpraty. The bunyip is a large water creature, inhabiting swamps, waterholes, creeks, etc. Many different descriptions exist. One, for example, says that it has long claws but hugs victims to death.


See Kakia.


See Cacodemon.

A type of evil spirit, cacodemons were capable of shapeshifting. In Enochian magick there are 1,024 cacodemons who do the work that creates the universe. They are the negative counterpart of agathodemons.

(A winged wand entwined by two serpents.) Symbol of Mercury, messenger of the gods, the wand represents power, the snakes represent wisdom, and the wings represent diligence. Also, the wand represents earth, the wings represent air, and the serpents represent fire and water.

Calf's Snout

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Snapdragon.


Pre-Hellenic goddess who was the personification of the force of instinct. In Greece, she became associated with being an eternally virginal nymph of Artemis. When Artemis discovers that she was seduced and impregnated by Zeus, she turns Callisto into a bear and puts her in the stars as the constellation, Ursa Major.

Calypso Moon Language

I am rather at a loss to give definition to this. Culling calls it a quasi-Enochian Language. Researching, I find that Calypso is a West Indian musical style influenced by jazz; it’s also a small species of orchid (Calypso borealis), having a flower variegated with purple, pink, and yellow that grows in cold, bog-like localities in the northern part of the United States. It is also the name of a tiny moon of the planet Saturn, discovered in 1980, and in 1983 named for the goddess Calypso who detained Odysseus for seven years in Homer’s Odyssey. And, finally, it is a fashion in which women tie a knot in their shirt and exposes her waist. There is some indication that it closely resembles modern Greek.  


Traditionally, the offspring of a human and a demon, including an incubus or a succubus. More recently, the term has also been used to describe the offspring of an incubus and a succubus, without the need of a human.

Capon's Tail

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Valerian. 


Also known as Caryatis. In ancient Greece, a walnut tree goddess.


See Carya.

Lord of Saturn and the sign of Capricorn. He is also Ruler of the Seventh Heaven. He helps people understand patience and encourages them to overcome longstanding obstacles and problems. He provides serenity and teaches temperance. Cassiel is associated with karma, and helps people understand the law of cause and effect. Because of his association with Saturn, Cassiel works slowly. As it takes Saturn four years to orbit the Sun, Cassiel can take up to years resolve a problem. Fortunately, Raphael is willing to talk with Cassiel to speed the process up.


According to ancient Greek mythology, Castalia was a nymph whom Apollo turned into a fountain at Delphi, home of the famous Oracle. Those who drank her waters would receive artistic (especially poetic) inspiration.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Catnip.

Cat's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Canada Snake Root and/or Ground Ivy.

(pronounced Kelt) - The ethnic group ancestral to the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish (of Cornwall), Breton, and Manx, and a high percentage of the French, Belgian and Swiss people. Celtic (pronounced either Kel-tik or Sel-tik) and Celtophile are derivatives of this word.

Of or relating to the Celtic people and languages.


In Greek mythology, this daughter of Nyx (the night) and sister to the fates was the goddess of violent death.


Name for a malevolent ghost.


A monstrous three-headed dog who, in Greek and Roman mythology, guarded the entry to the underworld and prevented those who had died and gone to the underworld from escaping. The heads represent past, present, and future, although some authority say they represent birth and youth, maturity, and old age. He was Hades’ watchdog.

A Welsh mother goddess.

The Greek name for ancient Celtic god Uindos, son of Noudons, who is featured in a group of great epic tales and romances called the Fenian cycle. Most famous incarnation is as Finn Mac Cumhail.

Chaldean Oracles
A small book of ideas and philosophical concepts supposedly revealing the Chaldean mysteries. The authorship is attributed to Zoroaster, but this is questionable.

(or Camael, Camiel, Kemuel) (“He Who Sees God”) The head of the Choir of Dominions and is one of the seven great archangels. He can be called upon for any matters involving tolerance, understanding, forgiveness, and love. Chamuel is also one of the ten Kabbalistic archangels. He rights wrongs, soothes troubled minds, and provides justice. Chamuel is Ruler of Mars. You should call on Chamuel whenever you need additional strength, or are in conflict with someone else. Chamuel provides courage, persistence, and determination.

In Celtic and Irish lore, a fairy given to a family in exchange for a human child.


In ancient Greek mythology, Charybdis was a beautiful naiad, the daughter of Poseidon and Gaia. She sided with her father against Zeus who turned her into a horrible sea monster. Later she was seen not as a monster per se, but as the goddess of terrifying oceanic whirlpools.


The Greek Hera was sometimes seen as a triple goddess. Chera is her third aspect, the old wise
woman, the name meaning “widowed” or “divorced.” [As a young woman she is Pais and as an adult she is Teleia.]

Singular form of “cherubim.” From the Hebrew “kerub.” A generic term for a celestial being, often shown in art as being a winged, chubby, young child.

The second-highest rank of angels in Dionysius’ hierarchy. They are God’s record keepers and reflect his wisdom and divine intelligence. They pay careful attention to all the details.


Female version of the bicorn, this mythic monster is believed to have survived by eating obedient wives and thus, was very hungry and skinny.


Ancient Greek mythological fire-breathing monster. It is most often described as a lion with a goat coming out of its back and a tail that ended in a snake’s head, other descriptions have different versions. Today, the term is used to mean any fictional animal with parts taken from multiple animals or something that is highly imaginative yet implausible. Usually considered a female, seeing the chimera was an omen of storms and natural disasters.


Literally a “young green shoot,” it is a title or name of the goddess Demeter.


Choronzon's number is 9, also the number of Man. But Choronzon is also a "demon" within the Enochian writings of Dr. John Dee, likewise within Crowley’s system where Choronzon is "the Dweller in the Abyss," believed to be the obstacle between the adept and enlightenment. But Choronzon is also the name of the demon that guards the Abyss on the Tree of Life—separating the lower from the higher. It’s that Abyss that we must cross to fulfill our spiritual destiny. That demon is the obstacle between the adept and enlightenment. If met with proper preparation by the magician, his function is to destroy the ego, allowing the magician to cross the Abyss. We all must confront our demon. 

The demon is also our Shadow, the lower self of the subconsciousness with our fears and repressions.

From the Greek chthon, earth. Refers to spirits or deities of the underworld or the souls of the dead.

An amulet made from an animal’s claw provides the wearer with protection according to the strength of the animal. A tiger’s claw amulet will be more powerful than one made from a badger’s claw, for instance. A bear-claw amulet is believed to help women during childbirth.


A beautiful Greecian water goddess who was the daughter of the river god, Asopos, and the river goddess Melope.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Great Mullein.


(Also spelled Cluricaune) A variation on the Irish leprechaun. Some say they went out drinking each night after finishing daily chores while others say they were always drunk. Treat them well and they’ll guard your wine cellar. Treat them poorly and they’ll give you bad luck and cause misfortune. They supposedly love to ride on dogs or sheep at night.


A type of dragon with only two legs and a rooster’s head. It is said to be able to turn a person to stone or kill with a glance.


The name, meaning "River of Wailing," of one of the five rivers in Greek mythology that surround Hades. The other four rivers are the Acheron ("River of Woe"), the Lethe ("River of Forgetfulness"), the Pyriphlegethon ("The Fiery River"), and the Styx ("The Hateful River").

Corpse Candles

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Mullein.


Thracian goddess also known as Kotys, she was a goddess of sexuality similar to Dionysus. A riotous festival in her honor was called the Cotyttia, and her followers where known as the baptai, implying a part of what was required to follow her, a baptism. Her worship extended from Thrace to Italy and Sicily.

Count Alessandro di Cagliostro

(1743–1795) There is a debate as to whether Cagliostro was a unique person or an alias for Joseph (or Giuseppe) Balsamo, an occultist and con artist. As a result, comments about Cagliostro may refer to him, to Balsamo, or to both.

Cagliostro/Balsamo travelled Europe and was involved with famous people, ranging from Cardinal Orsini to Benjamin Franklin. He seems to have been involved with the creation of sects of Freemasonry. Most famously, he was involved in the "Affair of the Diamond Necklace" with Marie Antoinette to defraud the jewelers to the French monarchy. This was one of the triggers that led to the French Revolution.

Cagliosto was supposedly also an alchemist, founded maternity hospitals and orphanages, and author of several books on occult topics. He spent time in prison and with royalty. His story is one of myth blended with reality.

Creation Myth

A mythic story used to explain the formation and existence of the phenomenal world.

Crocodile Dung

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Ethiopian Earth.

Cross of Confusion
Supposedly an ancient Roman symbol which questioned the validity of Christianity. It consists of an equal-armed (solar) cross, however the four bars of the cross do not meet at the center. Instead, there is a dot in the middle. The decending bar is replaced by a sickle, giving the appearance of an inverted question mark. Popularized in recent times as a symbol used by the band Blue Oyster Cult.

Crow Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Cranesbill, wild geranium, or buttercup.

Crux Ansata
See Ankh.


Generic term used to define any species of animal whose existence has not been proven and that has not be categorized or accepted by scientific consensus. Examples include Bigfoot, the Loch Ness Monster, the chupacabra, etc.

(koo-khullin) - The great epic hero of old Ulster stories such as the "Cattle Raid of Cooley." He was the incarnation or manifestation of the Celtic high god of Lugus (Lugh or Llew).

Cuddy's Lungs

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Great Mullein.

On the Kabalistic Tree of Life, an “extra” Sephira between the upper three Supernal Sephiroth and the lower seven. It is over the location known as the Abyss. The word is Hebrew for “knowledge.”


Also spelled Daath, the "invisible" sephirah on the Tree of Life, Knowledge. A passageway across the Abyss.

  • Astrological Correspondence: Sirius
  • Body: the Neck
  • Colors: in Atziluth: lavender; in Briah: pale silver gray; in Yetzirah: pure violet; in Assiah: gray flecked with gold
  • Consciousness: Ruach, the conscious self with Neshamah, the higher spiritual self
  • Element: Air
  • Symbols: the Empty Room, the Pyramid
  • Tarot: the Major Arcana

Ancient Greek concept of a spirit who inspires genius.


Not a “demon,” but a mythical being, part-human and part-god serving as an intermediary between God and humanity—an inspiring intelligence similar to if not identical to the Holy Guardian Angel.

Note the role of “an intermediary between God and humanity.” Once attainment of the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel is achieved, the Great Work takes on added dimension. The role of a Co-Creator expands in service to all humanity, and to all life and consciousness of our planet as a whole. 

The path to glory is endless to our still limited vision just as Love knows no bounds. 


An important Voudoun Loa. Damballah is seen as a sky serpent who is both wise and loving, but withdrawn. He likes food (and drink) that is colorless or white and does not have the power of human speech.


Greek goddess of agriculture, she is also considered a goddess of health and birth. She also oversaw marriage. May be a form of Demeter.


A bizarre bit of Greek mythology. The Danaids were fifty daughters of Danaus, a mythical king of Egypt and part of the legend that forms the mythical founding of Argos. The young women all married the fifty sons of Aegyptus, the twin brother of Danaus and, as indicated by the name, another mythic king of Egypt and Arabia. According to the story, the Danaids murdered their husbands (except for one) on their wedding night. The story seems to be a mythic representation of a struggle for control of Argos.

Greek Goddess of the harvest and fertility. Mother with Zeus of Persephone.

Supposedly a supernatural servitor to the devil. A term derived from the ancient Greek concept of the "Daemon," your higher self who can communicate with you. Today, many people have a psychological interpretation of demons, making them beliefs or ideas that have an unwanted hold on us, as in an “inner demon.”

A divine being according to Hindu beliefs; a devil or evil spirit according to Zoroastrianism.

Devil's Dung

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Asafoetida.

Devil's Mark
According to Christian belief, if a woman sold her soul to the Devil, the Devil would kiss the woman in some place on her body. This place, often marked by a scar, mole, blemish, etc., would be insensitive to pain and would not bleed when pricked or punctured. This resulted in the practice of “Witchfinders” using a pointed, awl-like tool (see bodkin) to prod a woman’s body in order to determine if she was a Witch.

(Hebrew DIN “Justice”) An alternative name for Giburah, the fifth Sephirah of the Cabalistic Tree of Life.

According to the Kabbalah, Dina is one of the guardians of the Torah, and has a special interest in learning and wisdom.

Divine King
An ancient tradition, going back to prehistoric times, linking kingship to the Divine, the land, and the people. Just as crops “die” to help make the land fertile for the next crops, the Divine or Sacred King would be sacrificed at the end of his reign or during a crisis. The concept was popularized by James Frazer in The Golden Bough and picked up by many other authors and Pagans. In some modern Pagan traditions, when a High Priest steps down from the role he is symbolically killed and replaced, indicating that the older HP’s wisdom is maintained by the newer ritualist.

The Islamic version of the Archangel Gabriel. Djibril is a huge angel. He has 600 or more beautiful green wings that cover most of the horizon. He has a shining face with the words “There is no God but God and Mohammed is the Prophet of God” written between his eyes. He dictated The Koran to Mohammed.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Couch grass.

Dog's Mouth

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Snapdragon.

Dog's Tongue

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the herb Hounds Tongue.


The beliefs and practices that form the basis of a religion. Often, dogmas are not supposed to be questioned by followers of the religion. 

Dogmatic Kabalah
The study of books of the Kabalah, such as the Torah and the Sepher Yetzirah.

The fourth and most important rank of angels in Dyonysius’ hierarchy. They work in heaven as middle-level executives, deciding what needs to be done, and then issuing the necessary orders to ensure that the universe works the way it should.

One of the angels of Venus. He can be invoked by men desiring the love of a good woman.


A Greek sea nymph, the aunt of Atlas and grandmother of Achilles and Triton.

A ritual implement used in Tibetan spirituality. Sometimes used to represent the “diamond body,” an individual’s “Buddha Nature” or divine spark.

Dove's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Wild Geranium.

A legendary flying reptile, often believed to be able to breathe fire. Dragons are found in the mythology of many world cultures, functioning as a deity in Mesoamerica, a sign of good fortune in Asia, and a dangerous, evil creature in Western Europe.

Dragon Lines
See Ley Lines.

Dragon's Blood
A bright red resin from multiple sources including cinnabar, certain rattan palms in Indonesia (where it’s known as djerang), and the plants commonly known as rushfoil or croton. It may be difficult to tell which resin you are actually obtaining when you purchase it.

The resin has had many practical uses, including as in medicines and as a varnish. For magic it is used in spells for love and for protection. It is also used to make a red ink used for magical drawings such as when forming talismans.

Dragon's Scales

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Bistort leaves.

An archaic term for dragon. Sometimes used as a name for a young dragon.

(also Druidiaxtos)The Celtic religious movement returning to the traditional pre-Christian values, customs, and faith of the Celtic people.

A tree spirit or forest guardian.

An important Hindu warrior Goddess. The fierce and fighting form of Shiva's wife.

Babylonian water god. Also considered the god of wisdom, art, magic, and a creator god.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Wild Garlic of Fenugreek.

Ear of an Ass

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Comfrey.

Ears of a Goat

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means St. John's Wort.

Angel with a special interest in people involved in writing. He can be invoked by people intending to make a career in literary pursuits.

A country in North Africa considered part of the Middle East. Known formally today as the Arab Republic of Egypt, it is popular today among mystics, occultists, and magicians due to its ancient, highly developed civilization and the amazing remnants of that civilization, the massive temples, burial memorials, pyramids, and mighty sphinx.

The pictographic written language of the ancient Egyptians in the form of hieroglyphs amazed both archeologists and occultists. Many occultists made assumptions (sometimes wild assumptions) as to the meaning of the symbols even before the key to their decipherment, the Rosetta Stone, was translated (originally by Thomas Young in 1814 but expanded on and credited to Jean-François Champollion in the 1820s). Mystical and spiritual texts were often translated literally, making them seem foolish. Thus, Aleister Crowley reinterpreted a text that had been described as the “Headless One” as the more mystically appropriated “Bornless One.”

Egypt has been credited as being the source of many kinds of magic. Some of these ideas are legitimate, while others are highly questionable. Some place the origination of the Freemasons and at least one Rosicrucian group in ancient Egypt. Occult groups such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Ordo Templi Orientis use Egyptian symbolism and ideas in some of their rituals.




A Cretan goddess of childbirth and midwifery.


Also spelled “Irene,” she was a Greek goddess of Spring. Since late Spring was the time when wars were typically fought, she was also a goddess of peace. 

In the Kabalah, a name of God associated with the Sephira Chesed. The name itself is usually translated as “God.” It may have been the name of a Semitic bull god.

Elder Brothers

See Ascended Masters.

A non-physical entity composed entirely of one of the magickal elements. They should more accurately be called elementaries, but most people use this term.

Elemental Spirit

A non-physical entity that is completely associated with one of the classic four elements: Air, Earth, Fire, or Water. The natural elemental spirits include Ondines (Water), Sylphs (Air), Salamanders (Fire), and Gnomes (Earth). Artificial elementals are created through magick, have the energy of one element, and are useful to their creators.

The more appropriate group name for elementals.

There are five magickal elements: Air, Earth, Fire, Water, and Spirit (though usually Spirit is ignored and they are described as the four elements). They relate to relative levels of moisture and heat and should not be confused with the Western scientific concept that uses the same name.

According to the Kabbalah, Elemiah is one of the Seraphs of the Tree of Life. He can be invoked by anyone involved in inner growth and spiritual pursuits.

(Pl: elves) Originally part of early Germanic myth, elves were seen as a semi-divine race capable of helping or harming humans with magick. In the 1800s they became conflated with fairies, and were supposedly very small in size and lived in natural settings. Some people have claimed that Witches were descendants of intermarriages between human and elf, inheriting the magickal abilities of their ancestry.

Elf Arrows
Triangular pieces of flint which appear all over the word. The name comes from their description in Scotland. Some claim they could be used as weapons by being hurled with great force. They were supposed to provide protection from fairies and could cure illness--at least illness caused by fairies. In fact, there were "fairy doctors," people who specialized in treating diseases caused by fairies. One cure of such a disease was to drink water into which an elf arrow had been dipped.

Elf Shot
See Elf Arrows.

In Hebrew, the –ah suffix indicates a feminine noun. Therefore, Eloah indicates a female form of El. Since El means “god,” it would seem that this work means goddess.

A curious Hebrew term. Among Jews today it usually means “God.” However, for many occultists it means “gods.” This is not exactly correct. Hebrew has suffixes that indicate whether a term is male or female, as well as whether it is singular or plural. The plural of “God,” El, is Elim (pronounced “ai-leem”). The plural of “Goddess,” Eloah, is Eloahoht. Therefore, this word is a combination of the singular term for goddess and the plural term for god. Perhaps the best definition of the term is “gods and goddesses.” It is also the God Name associated with the Sephira Netzach on the Tree of Life.

See Elf.

(Judaism) The location of a woman spirit medium as described in the Jewish bible, I Samuel 28.

King Saul wanted information about an upcoming battle with the massive armies of Philistines, and had already failed by way of dreams, the use of prophets, and the divination system known as the Urim and Thumim. Disguised, Saul (who had made the consulting of spirits illegal, including the death penalty) visits this woman. When she realizes who it is, Saul says she will not be punished. She raises the spirit of Samuel, who denounces being raised and informs him that he and his family will be destroyed in battle. Note that this unnamed woman is an Israelite and a Jewess as well as being a spirit medium or necromancer. She is not mentioned further or by any other means in the Jewish bible. King James I, sponsor of the translation that bears his name, was terrified that Witches were out to kill him. To defame Witches, he ordered that she be called a “Witch” in his translation.

Englishman's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Common Plantain.

A scribe who lived for three-hundred-and-sixty-five years on earth before “God took him” and turned him into an angel (Genesis 5:23–24) known as Metatron.


Literally “He who walked with God.” Hebrew prophet said to be the seventh master of the world following Adam.



Enoch is described in the Jewish bible and other extrabiblical sources. According to Lewis Spence, he is considered the seventh master of the world after Adam. He has been equated with the Egyptian deity Thoth. An Apocryphal book written about 100 b.c.e. is attributed to him, but only fragments remain. It is said that he didn’t die, but was “translated” (i.e., carried away) to heaven and will return at the end of time. John Dee and his assistant, Edward Kelly supposedly communicated with Enoch who communicated an entire system of magick to them. This is known as Enochian magick.


A Greek Titan and goddess of Dawn. Her brother is Helios, the Sun.

In Jewish mysticism, the Erelim are huge angels who look after plants and vegetation. They observe what is happening in the natural world and report their findings directly to God. This is easy for them to do as they apparently have 70,000 heads, and each head has 70,000 mouths. Each mouth has 70,000 tongues, and each tongue has 70,000 sayings.

The Greek Goddess of chaos and random behavior. She is credited as being the ultimate cause of the famed Trojan War after being slighted by not being invited to a party.

("Time”) Eth is the angel who ensures that everything happens at the correct time. Eth can be invoked for guidance and help when one’s patience is exhausted.

A word composed of the first and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet, so similar in meaning to the Greek Alpha et Omega, first and last, etc. In the Kabalah, it is associated with the magical element of Spirit.

The substance/energy of the etheric level of existence in magical theory, also known by dozens of other names, such as akasha, od, orgone, vital life force, and vril. According to recent writers, it is identical with the prana of Hindu philosophy and the ch’i of Chinese medicine and martial arts. It is the basis of life and physical form, can be concentrated and directed by breath and intention, and can be felt directly by the human skin through the use of certain exercises. Magical lore relates it to the moon, which generates tides in the etheric atmosphere of the Earth.

The word “ether” was borrowed by nineteenth-century occultists from contemporary science, which postulated a “luminiferous ether” to explain the wavelike qualities of light and other electromagnetic radiation. This concept was discarded by scientist after the emergence of relativity theory at the beginning of the twentieth century, but the term was useful enough that it has been kept by many occultists.


Identical with the Hindu Akasha and the fifth element in Western Magic, Spirit. It is believed to originate the other four elements: Earth, Water, Fire, and Air. Also called Astral Light, Ch’i, Odic Force, Orgone, Prana, Vril, the Force. It can be concentrated and directed by will, and intensified by breath.

Etheric Revenant

This is the foundation for vampire lore. As with the ancient Egyptian practice of mummification, the preserved body—hidden and protected from disturbance including the effect of sunlight—provides a base for the continued use of the etheric body by the personality of a deceased person. The etheric body has to be nourished with substances rich with life energy, like blood.

Etiological Myth
A mythic story used to explain the original of why a religion, cult or group follows a particular practice.


The study of the development of words over time. Some researchers use supposed etymological relationships to "prove" how societies developed or reveal the"real" meanings of words. Since words are used to communicate ideas, the original meanings of words may or may not have any value in determining why they were used in a text without knowing the popular meaning of the word at the time they were written. Although words may appear to have common roots or pronunciation, words from different areas that have such common relationships only imply an actual source relationship. Without evidence to support the use of borrowed words and meanings, it is only coincidence.

The theory, named after the Greek philosopher Euhemerus who first proposed it, that mythology is a distorted reflection of ancient historical events.


Although the name means the “gracious ones” or "kindly ones," they were also known as the Furies, representing the anger of the dead. They were vengeance demons also known as Erinyes. 


A Greek Titan goddess of pastures. 

Evil Eye
A curse placed on a person by looking at him or her.

See Exorcism.

Eye of Christ

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Germander or speedwell.

Eye of Day

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the common daisy. 

Eye of Providence

See All-Seeing Eye.

Eye of the Star

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Horehound.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the inner part of a blossom. It may also refer to the Aster, Daisy, or Eyebright.

One of the angels who can be invoked for protection while traveling.

An imaginary [sic] supernatural being or spirit, supposed to assume a human form (usually diminutive), either male or female, and to meddle for good or evil in the affairs of mankind; a fay. See elf. "Elves and fairies in a ring."--Shakespeare

A realm of nonhuman entities associated with the natural world; also the entities themselves. Technically speaking, an inhabitant of Faery is a fay, not a faery or fairy, but the terms have become totally confused over the last half-dozen centuries or so. The exact nature of Faery and its inhabitants has been a subject of quite a bit of debate down through the years, in and out of the Western occult traditions. Entities of the sort later known as fays, elves, and the like can be found in ancient Greek and Roman sources, where they blend in seamlessly with the realm of nature spirits and minor gods – the background fabric of classical religion. This same attitude can be found in Germanic and Celtic traditions, where the boundaries between gods and elves are impossible to draw. Current ideas about faery in the occult community range across the spectrum from Jungian analyses that conceptualize them as psychological realities through Theosophically derived teachings that see them as participants in another current of evolution (one that starts with elementals and proceeds through faeries, devas, and angels to archangels and beyond), to Pagan conceptions that interpret them as simply one part of the complex fabric of spiritual reality, bring the wheel around full circle. Which of these is closest to the truth, only the fays know – and they’re not saying.

Fairies are viewed in many modern Wicca/Witchcraft traditions as spiritual beings whose actions maintain the life force in Nature. The fairy concept has its origins in the Neolithic Cult of the Dead in Old Europe and to the ancient burial mounds of that period.

Fairy Ring
A circle of dark green grass or a ring of mushrooms on the ground. It can also refer to a perfect circular impression in the grass. Legend states that one should never disturb a fairy ring in any way. According to ancient lore, fairy rings marked the spot of a fairy gathering. To disturb the area was to offend the fairies, an act that could bring a person bad luck or serious misfortune.

Fan Death

A myth, popular in South Korea, that sleeping in a closed room while running an electric fan can cause death. There is no evidence that a fan in a closed room has ever caused such a death.

A charm against the evil eye worn by children in ancient Greece. Shaped like a phallus, it was also used to protect homes, forges, and chariots. Other names for it include probaskanion and baskanion. In Rome it was called a satyrica sigma.

Fat from a Head

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means herb Spurge. 

An Old Irish word which means “warriors.” Now used to refer to the mythical band of roving Celtic warriors who acted much as a modern police force. They were under the leadership of Fionn mac Cumhaill. The Fianna patrolled both Ireland and Western Scotland.

(fee-lyeh) - A poet-magician or seer who performed Celtic magic and mystical rites. The fili was a solitary practitioner, something like a shaman in other cultures.

The use of fingernails for the purposes of divination is a long-standing Jewish practice: one use the light of the Havdalah candle (used for a ceremony marking the end of the Sabbath) to gaze into one’s own nails. Young girls do so in hopes of seeing the face of the man they will marry, but earlier authorities held that all kinds of omens, for good or for ill, could be detected in the reflection. Conversely, there is a belief that cutting one’s nails can adversely effect memory unless a specific order of trimming is followed: starting with the left hand, begin with finger four (ring) and end with one (thumb) and avoid doing and two in sequence; right hand two to five. White spots on the nails are considered a good omen.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Cinquefoil.

Finn Mac Cumhail
(fin mok kool) - The great hero and incarnation of Uindos (or Cernunnos, in Greek), son of Noudons in a group of great epic tales and romances called the Fenian cycle.

Sometimes known as the living element, it is perhaps the most ancient symbol of divinity. Fire is a living principle of duality, providing light and heat to aid humankind, while at the same time being a force of death and destruction. The eternal flame is a common theme in ancient Mystery Cults and typically represents the eternal presence of Divinity. Among the ancient Greeks, Hestia symbolized the divine living flame, as did Vesta among the Romans. In modern Wicca, Fire is one of the four creative elements.

Five Fingers

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Cinquefoil.

Flying Spaghetti Monster

The deity of a religious parody. This began in 2005 when a man named Bobby Henderson wrote an open letter protesting a decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to allow the teaching of "intelligent design" in public school science classes. He claimed he worshiped as creator a being that looked like spaghetti and meatballs and that he should get equal time. It was an attempt to mock the school board, but after he posted the letter to his website it became an internet phonomenon, and has grown in numerous ways. Followers of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster are known as "Pastafarians."

Folk Magick
The magickal traditions of any group of people. These techniques, often in the form of sympathetic magic, frequently use simple techniques and methods. Many have evolved into entire systems and form the basis for the magical aspects of some Witchcraft, Pagan, Wiccan, and Afro-Caribbean traditions.

Name for the traditional myths, superstitions, stories, and healing techniques of any culture. Sometimes ancient knowledge and spiritual concepts are disguised within this folklore. For example, the famous song “John Barleycorn” describes killing someone by that name, but it is actually about growing barley.

(Pronounced “foh-voy-rah”) A mysterious race of non-humans who allegedly settled in Ireland before being driven out by the Tuatha De Danann. They are usually described as being evil and dangerous.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means "leaf."

Goddess of fertility in Nordic-Germanic mythology. The ancient Romans equated her with Venus as a goddess of love. In iconography Freya’s chariot was drawn by two magickal cats.

Friday the 13th

As with most superstitions, many reasons have been given to justify the myth that when a Friday is the 13th day of a month it is unlucky. This myth is usually associated with two causes, the fear of the number 13 (triskaidekaphobia) and the belief that starting ventures on Fridays was bad luck. Combined, they are supposedly doubly bad.

Friday the 13th

Not actually unlucky, but rather a good day combining the symbolisms of Friday and 13. The superstition was manufactured to turn Christians from the Old Religion, and make them fearful of the teachings of Love and Fertility. Friday is the day of the Nordic Goddess Frigga, or Freya, who is the equivalent of the Roman Venus—Goddess of Love. And 13 is associated with both the size of the traditional Witches’ coven and the 13 Full Moons to a year—in other words, the fullness of Life.



Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Cinquefoil.

Frog's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the Bulbous Buttercup.

From the Belly

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means "Earth apple," an old name for potatoes.

From the Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Houseleek.

From the Loins

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Chamomile. 

Also called the fylfot cross, it is a symbol from ancient heraldry. The fylfot is shaped like the swastika, but was in use long before it became a symbol of Nazism. The symbol was adopted and adapted by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and used in their first degree initiation. The symbol was divided into squares, each with an astrological or elemental symbol. The Golden Dawn used it 40–50 years before it was adopted by the Nazis.

(“God Is My Strength”) Gabriel, one of the four named archangels in the Hebraic tradition, is the Angel of the Annunciation and God’s main messenger. Gabriel is one of the three angels who are mentioned by name in the Bible. (The others are Michael and Raphael. Raphael figures in The Book of Tobit, part of the Roman Catholic Bible.) Gabriel is the Ruler of the Cherubim and sits on God’s left hand side. It was Gabriel who told the Virgin Mary that she would give birth to Christ. Muslims believe Gabriel, whom they call Djibril, dictated the Koran to Mohammed. Gabriel is the angel of purification, guidance, and prophecy.

Archangel of the West and elemental Water.


The Greek goddess of the Earth. Mother nature.

The mother goddess of the Earth. Pronounced either “guy-uh” or “gay-uh.”


A Greek sea nymph and the spirit of the river Acis in Sicily.


See Ganesha.


See Ganesha


The son of Shiva and Parvati, Shiva unkowingly slew him by slicing off his head. He brought him back to life with the head of an elephant. Seen as the "remover" of obstacles, this may give an inaccurate interpretation of what he does. Sometimes obstacles are not removed, but rather new possibilities are presented. The obstacle may remain but it no longer is in your way to success. Traditionally, Ganesha is honored at the start of Tantric and Hindu rituals, even if the ritual is dedicated to another deity. He is also called upon at the start of any new endeavor. Also known as Ganesh or Ganapati.


Also known as Hebe, she was the cupbearer of Olympus.

One of the angels responsible for sunrise. Consequently, he can be invoked for a new start or new beginnings.


An alternative name for Chesed, meaning Greatness.

(gayss), plural geassa (gassa) - A controlling spell or enchantment in which a certain action or behavior will cause another certain action or effect. Usually it takes the form of a taboo or a destiny, as when CuChullain overheard Cathbad say that any boy who accepts weapons on that day would be destined to be a great hero, and he asked his king for arms.


From the Latin genius, meaning a guardian deity or spirit. Today this is often equated with the Arabic term Jinni, although they traditionally have a different root and meaning. See also Jinni.

According to Roman mysticism, the Genius is similar to what we would today call a “Guardian Angel.” The Genius was a spirit that would be present at a person’s birth, and then watch over the person, guiding and protecting him or her throughout life. Similar to the Greek concept of a Daemon, which was degraded to the modern meaning of an evil spirit. To some occultists, the Genius is the higher self, and one of the goals of spirituality is to bring out your genius and communicate with it.

A spirit or demon (some say a resurrected body) that feeds on the bodies of recently dead humans.


A computer term meaning “Garbage In, Garbage Out.” Relates to the notion in sex magick that the thought held at orgasm comes to pass. If the thought is chaotic or uncontrolled, the result or “magickal childe” will be uncontrolled or chaotic.


Hebrew for “Revolution of Souls,” the Kabalistic doctrine of reincarnation.

Giuseppe Balsamo

Also known as Joseph Balsamo. See Count Alessandro di Cagliostro.

A symbol or pictograph. The symbols of the planets and signs used in astrology are known as glyphs.

Goat's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Ash Weed.

God's Hair

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hart's Tongue Fern

Golden Bough
A mystical tree branch in Greco-Roman myth involving the hero Aeneas on a quest. It allows him entrance into the Underworld. James Frazer wrote a book titled The Golden Bough, which dealt with the cult of Diana and Dianus at Lake Nemi, in Italy.

In Jewish folklore, a mute being composed of inanimate materials. In the Jewish creation myth, Adam is a type of golem, and is described as such in the Talmud. The story most associated with the golem involves the 16th century Rabbi Lowe of Prague who uses magic to create a creature in order to protect the Jews of the city. But the creature becomes wilder and Lowe agrees to destroy it. On the golems forehead is the Hebrew word “emet” that means “truth.” The Rabbi rubs out the first letter leaving the word “met” which means “death.” Over the years, variations of the story have appeared. For example, some versions feature the golem having powers such a being able to summon spirits, invisibility, and even a touch that burns. Some people believe it is the source for the idea of the monster in Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein.

Gosling Wing

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Goosegrass.



In Vodoun, a Govi is a jar usually made of clay used to contain the souls of dead relatives of the Voudoist. During a ritual, the voice of one of the dead souls in the Govi may respond to questions.

A Norse version of the magic sword, similar in some ways to the Arthurian Excalibur. Odin, king of the Norse gods, while in the disguise of a beggar, pushed Gram into a tree. He said that whoever removed it could have it as a gift. The only person who could do so was the hero Sigmund, resulting in adventures and sorrows. Eventually, during a battle, Sigmund went up against an old man, again Odin in disguise. Odin smashed the sword, taking away its powers, allowing Sigmund to be defeated and mortally wounded. Before he dies, he tells his wife that she is pregnant and that their son would eventually take the shards of the sword and make a great weapon. The son is Sigurd, hero of the Volsung Saga.

An old weather superstition says if you see a cat or dog eating grass you can be sure that rain is coming. In actuality, cats and dogs eat grass to help their digestion.

Graveyard Dust
Dust or earth taken from a grave. Some people suggest that it should only be from the grave of a person who would approve of its use. If you want to use it as part of a luck spell, collect it around the new moon. For warfare, pick it up around the full moon. Collect it at midnight and leave an offering such as money, food, or liquor. It should be something that the deceased person liked.

Graveyard Dust
Powder ground up from the herb patchouli or leaves from mullein. This can be used alone or with other herbs to magickally bring some sort of restriction or inertia.

Graveyard Dust

Although a popular and literally-interpreted term in some folk magic books, graveyard dust is actually a code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Mullein.

Great Ox-eye

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Ox-Eye Daisy.


Literally, the "Big Good Angel." In Voodoo, the soul is seen as having two parts. The Gros-Bon-Ange is the life force. It enters the body at birth. At death it leaves the body and returns to the Gran Met, or pool of life force. The other part of the soul is the Ti-Bon-Ange.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the roots and stalk of a plant.

Angel associated with the first heaven and the Moon. Habbiel has a strong interest in love, loyalty, and commitment. He is the angel to call on if you or your partner experience problems in committing yourselves to each other.

The second god of Aleister Crowley’s The Book of the Law, the god of infinite contraction represented by a point in space or a winged solar orb.


The Chaldean aspect of the Egyptian god of evil or darkness. Crowley regarded Hadit as the master of magickal initiationl. Hadit is the point in the center of the circle that is Nuit. He is "the flame that burns in every heart of man and the core of ever star."

(“Greatness of God”) In Hebrew tradition, God rebuked Hadraniel as he made Moses weep when he arrived in heaven to received the Torah. After this, Hadraniel decided to help Moses, and did this by using his powerful voice. Apparently, Hadraniel’s voice can penetrate 200,000 firmaments. Each word he says produces 12,000 flashes of lightning. You should call on Hadraniel whenever you need help to express yourself.

The angel to call upon when you wish to send blessings to someone to thank them for their help or kindness.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means dried stringy herbs or a ripe male fern.

Hair of Hamadriyas Baboon

Although using the name of a type of baboon native to parts of Africa, it's actually a code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dill Seed.

Hair of Venus

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Maidenhair fern.

Angel who can be invoked whenever it is essential to appear calm and dignified. Hamael provides persistence, determination, and practicality.

One of the angelic rulers of August and the sign of Virgo. Hamaliel can be invoked for any matters involving logic and attention to detail.

Another spelling of the name of the angel Anael.

(or Hararel) The angel responsible for libraries, archives, and other repositories of knowledge. He can be called upon for help and advice on any matters involving study and learning.

Hare's Beard

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Great Mullein.


Goddess of concord and harmony, she is the daughter of Aphrodite and Ares. She sooths strife and is the goddess of marital harmony. As the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, she also represents harmonious action in war.

The Egyptian god of silence; an aspect of Horus as Heru-Ra-Ha.

Harvest Doll
See Corn Dolly.


Ancient Egyptian goddess of love, music, beauty, joy, and motherhood. Hathor is the wife of Horus and her name means Enclosure or House of Horus. She is shown with the head of a cow because she is the eternal mother and guardian of mothers. She is also a goddess of dance and fertility, helping women in childbirth.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hawkweed.

Hawk's Heart

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Wormwood seed or wormwood crown.

Angelic member of the Choir of Cherubim. He should be invoked whenever you are seeking God’s mercy and compassion.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the flower of a plant.

Some people believe it is bad luck to see a hearse. Seeing, or overtaking, a hearse is neither good nor bad luck. However, it is bad luck to unexpectedly meet a hearse coming towards you. This omen is several times worse if the hearse is empty.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It specifically means Walnut; however, it may refer to the bud, seed, or nut, 
or another plant.

The name used to describe a place—often considered to be outside normal time and space—where God or the gods live. Also said to be the home of various angels when they are not directly helping out in the physical universe. In some religions, heaven is also the place where the spirits or souls of people (and in some beliefs, animals) go after death. Some religions limit this to the souls of people who are either “good” or have followed certain guidelines of the religion.

Originally, the word referred to the sky and areas above the atmosphere where “heavenly bodies” and “heavenly phenomena” appeared. This eventually evolved to the current meaning.


The “higher heaven” is the Causal Plane and the “lower heaven” is the Mental Plane. Both provide blissful states to the soul between incarnations during which past life experiences are transformed into wisdom. It’s a time when creativity becomes perfected reality for the soul. 


Hebe was Zeus and Hera’s youngest daughter, therefore she is a Greek goddess of youth. She served the gods ambrosia which gave them eternal life, thus she is also a goddess of immortality. She married Hercules, making him a demi-god.


The ancient Greek goddess of the plants. Specifically, she would make them bloom and bear fruit. Her name means “mastery.”

Ascent. See Merkabah.


Hell is man-made. Some define it as the Physical World. Some occult writers say that it is the lower levels of the Astral World where fears and illusions will manifest to the newly deceased until those energies are exhausted, and the entity can move on.

A seven-pointed star that can be drawn with one unbroken line. Its seven points are believed to be symbolic of many items that come in sets of seven, such as the traditional visible planets, the colors of the rainbow, the seven planes, and the seven major chakras.


The Greek goddess, called the “Queen of Heaven.” She rules the heavens and earth, the seasons and the weather. As a powerful woman and goddess even before she married Zeus, king of the Olympians, she also is a goddess of women in all aspects of their lives, including fertility, children, financial security, etc. Her name means “Great Lady” and seems to be derived from the Greek gala meaning “mother’s milk.”

Herbal Codes

A system used by magicians, alchemists, Pagans, and others to disguise the actual herbs and minerals used in their rituals with other, sometimes far-fetched names. Thus, "strawberry juice" would be disguised by calling it "baby's blood" (in retrospect a questionable choice), thus throwing uninitiated and untrained people attempting to perform a magickal technique off the track by giving them misinformation.

The knowledge of and ability to use of herbs and plants for magick, healing, and in foods.

Hermes Trismegistus

"Thrice-great Hermes." Considered to be the author of the Emerald Tablet of Hermes, famous for introducing the concept of, "As above, so below."

A name of Horus (Heru) given in Aleister Crowley’s The Book of the Law, the unified form of Ra-Hoor-Khuit and Hoor-Pa-Kraat (Harpocrates).


Egyptian form of Horus as Horus the Elder. Hawk-headed son of Isis and Osiris, his eyes were the Sun and the Moon. Divine foe of Set.


A Greek goddess of the hearth and home. She was highly revered and quite important, but little known today, leading scholars to call her “the forgotten goddess.” She is associated with hospitality, inns and restaurants. Her name translates as “the essence,” so working with her could lead to understanding the true nature of things.

Hieros Gamos
A Greek term referring to a “marriage” (or more especially, the wedding night and intercourse) between a human and a deity. This could be enacted with a person taking the role of a deity or entirely symbolically. See Great Rite.

Hind's Tongue

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hart's Tongue Fern.

Hiner Bet
In Jewish tradition, a death-like trance state. Certain people would be seized by a hiner bet, only to awaken with occult knowledge about the sins and transgressions of neighbors in the community. Demons and punishing spirits were assumed to be the source of this secret knowledge.


In order to marry Pelops, the son of Tantalus, she rigged a chariot race between him and her father. Of course, her father had been fixing races before leading to the deaths of previous suitors. Thus, her name is associated with large racing sites and large theaters. 


Also spelled Hode

The eighth sephirah on the Tree of Life, Splendor, Renown. Located at the base of the Pillar of Form and Severity.

In Atziluth, the World or Origins, it is the Feminine Divine Power in each person.

Name of God: Elohim Tzabaoth

Archangel: Raphael

Angelic Host: Beni Elohim

Astrological Correspondence: Mercury

Body: left hip


Consciousness: the Intellect as part of Ruach, (the Conscious Self)

Element: Water

Magical Image: a warrior hermaphrodite

Symbol: the caduceus

Tarot: The four Eights

In Briah, the World of Creation:

Archangel: Raphael –

Conscience, the sense of right and wrong.

The mind as an instrument.

Learning from injury.


In Yetzirah  the World of Formation:

Angelic Host: Beni Elohim –

First Awareness of Divinity.


 In Assiah, the World of Expression:

Astrological Correspondence: Mercury

Intelligence as adaptability to the environment.


Instruction: the Hermetic Path

Rites & Rituals

Occult Texts

Both sexes in one person, searching for one another.

Mind as complement to Soul. 

One of the angels who can be called upon to help cure human stupidity.

Holy Grail
The mythological object pursued by King Arthur’s knights; Christ’s chalice at the last supper; receptacle for Christ’s blood.

Holy Guardian Angel
An expression meaning your Higher Self to some, a more knowledgeable non-physical entity to others. Contacting the H.G.A. is known as “The Knowledge and Conversation of Your Holy Guardian Angel.” Establishing this relationship is considered to be the same as achieving enlightenment or cosmic consciousness.

Holy Guardian Angel

The transcendent spiritual self that mediates between the Divine Self and the Lower Personality and serves as guardian and guide. The term was used by Abramelin the Mage as the focus of the magical operation known as "the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel." The HGA is also called the Higher Self, known also as the Augoeides of Iamblichus’ system, the All-Knower, the Divine Genius of the Golden Dawn, the Atman of Hinduism the True Ruler, Adonai, the Indwelling Spirit, etc. Carl Jung calls it his Daemon (not demon!) as did the Greeks.

Contact between the Higher, Divine Self, and the Lower Self/Personality, has to be initiated by the Personality, and then is experienced as a separate being. That contact is the first step in the Great Work (also known as the Knowledge and Convfersation) that leads to integration, and thus to Initiation. This is the discovery of one’s True Will.

Holy Stone

A stone with a natural hole caused during its formation or through erosion. They are often considered good luck and representative of The Goddess. In some traditions it is treated as a pendant for a necklace, often hanging from a red cord.

(Latin, “little human”) In alchemy, a miniature but living human being created artificially by alchemical means. Recipes for creating a homunculus usually involved placing semen, alone or with other substances, in an alchemical vessel, which was kept at very mild heat for forty days. At the end of this time a small, half-transparent human shape could be observed. The alchemist was then instructed to feed it each day with the Arcanum (an alchemical preparation) of human blood, keeping it at the same low heat, for forty weeks. At the end of this time it would have matured into a miniature human child, which could then be taken out of the vessel and raised like any other child.

The traditions concerning the homunculus are probably related to those of the golem, the artificial human whose construction is discussed in Jewish folklore and Cabalistic magical texts.


Title of Demeter (Demeter Horephoros) as the bringer of seasons.

Horse Hoof

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Coltsfoot.

Horse Tongue

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hart's Tongue Fern. 

A “U”-shaped object, traditionally made of iron, attached to the hooves of horses to prevent the hooves from wearing away due to the added weight of carrying people and things. The horseshoe has been a symbol of good luck for centuries. Originally a representation of the Goddess and Her genitalia, Pagans would hang them over doors with the open end pointed down so that the blessings of the Goddess would pour upon them. Later, Christians attributed the good luck to the actions of Saint Dunstan, a blacksmith who became the Archbishop of Canterbury in 959 c.e. According to legend, he was able to nail a horseshoe to the Devil’s hoof. Only after the Devil promised not to enter a place where a horseshoe was over the door did Dunstan free him. (This is a curious myth. Why did Dunstan free him at all?) It was at this time that the direction of the horseshoe began to change so that the open end was pointing up. This reversed the Pagan method of display and, it was said, prevented the luck from running out at the bottom.

The Lord of the New Aeon; the child of Isis and Osiris.


A Greek version of the name of the ancient Egyptian falcon-headed god. In Egypt his name was Hor, Har, or Haru. One of the oldest of Egyptian gods. One of the “words” for god in Egyptian hieroglyphs is a falcon on a perch. Over the centuries he took on several aspects, including sky god, Sun god, war god, and hunting god.

In Golden Dawn ritual, a “Great Angel” set over the operations of the order’s secret wisdom. Hru was invoked in the ceremony used to consecrate the Vault of the Adepti, and is also mentioned in the Golden Dawn Tarot papers; as a result of this latter point, he is called upon by many Tarot practitioners, in and out of the Golden Dawn tradition, for guidance in divination. His name is identical to that of the Egyptian deity Horus (ancient Egyptian hru); It has been suggested that he is the angelic guardian of the Golden Dawn tradition as a whole.

Hugin and Munin
Ravens associated with Odin, leader of the Norse Gods. Their names respectively mean “thought” and “memory.” At dawn each morning, Odin would send them out to gather information about the world. At sunset they would return and tell him what is going on in the world.


A now-abandoned concept created by the ancient Greeks and later Roman physicians that described the make up and function of humans. The humors are:

Name  Qualities Element
Black Bile Cold & Dry Earth
Yellow Bile Hot & Dry Fire
Blood Hot & Wet Air
Phlegm Wet & Cold Water

It was believed that the quantities of these substances could increase and decrease depending upon activity and diet. A lack of balance—an excess or shortage of one of these substance—resulted in disease.  Clearly this is related to the later Western alchemical philosophy that all matter is composed of four elements.

The ancient Greeks did not have a general word for “matter,” only words for specific types of matter. Aristotle took the word for lumber and adapted it to mean matter, in general. In alchemy it is also called the “First Matter,” is the source of the four elements, and is identical to the “Philosopher’s Stone.”

Greek God of sleep. His mother was Nyx (night), and his twin brother is Thanatos (death). Equates to the Roman Somnus. Outside of his dwelling place, a dark cave, are found sleep-inducing plants such as poppies. A Scottish physician named James Braid saw a demonstration of Mesmerism and thought that Mesmerized people were in a state similar to sleep. He discarded the theories of Mesmer and called the sleep “hypnosis.” Later, he realized that hypnosis was not sleep and tried to change the name to “monoideism.”

Angel who looks after the needs of hermits and philosophers. He can be invoked for help in meditation, and for counsel during periods of self-imposed retirement from the world.

The supreme godhead in Gnosticism. Also associated with the deities Isis, Apophis, and Osiris.


Ancient Greek goddess of all forms of healing. She was the daughter of Asclepius, the god of healing.

Iggeret ha-Kodesh
(“The Holy Letter”) a medieval mystical sex manual attributed to Nachmanides. It teaches about spiritual intention while having sex, sexual positions and their relative merits, even the direction to be oriented while having sex.

("ILL-mah-tar"): Finnish goddess; mother of the waters. Creation goddess impregnated by the wind to give birth to the earth and stars and the first person (a bard).


A term for a fairy-like spirit or entity, frequently small in stature and mischievous.

A demonic male spirit that sexually assaults women. It is believed that they can actually inseminate women even though they don’t have their own sperm. They pretend to be the female counterpart of the incubus, the succubus, and seduce sleeping men, thus obtaining seminal fluid from a nocturnal emission. Possibly used to explain away unwanted pregnancies.

Letters supposedly written on Jesus’ cross, they have a multiplicity of meanings depending upon to whom you are talking.


See Eirene.


The Greek goddess of the rainbow and a messenger for the gods.

A metal used in countermagick and associated with protection. Items made of iron such as horseshoes and religious symbols were all used to banish evil. Iron is the most easily magnetized metal known and can absorb and retain magnetic charges quite easily. Because of this nature it was believed to rob nearby objects of whatever magickal energy they might contain. Therefore, magickal energy directed against a person or place was absorbed by the iron before it could take effect.

The angel who provides mankind with spiritual nourishment. He can be invoked by anyone desiring spiritual sustenance.

Babylonian goddess of fertility, love and war. Considered a personification of the planet Venus. Followers practiced “sacred prostitution.”

A statue, image, or icon, often used in religious practices, where the male genitals are greatly exaggerated. This was done in early forms of worship of the powers of generation and of the male God. It is named after the image of a phallus that was carried in ancient Rome during a procession for the holiday of the Bacchanalia. Also a term for hymns dedicated to the god Bacchus.

An angel who works with the Archangel Haniel (also known as Anael) and specialized in resolving disagreements, especially between family members. Itqal also restores love and affection and enhances consideration of others.

Jacob's Staff

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Great Mullein. 

Fog in January…is believed to predict a wet spring. Rain in January is a sign of many funerals. It is a sign of a good harvest if oak trees bend with snow in January.

(“The Glory of God”) Archangel who helps anyone who is attempting a closer relationship with God. He provides opportunities for people who are honest, sincere, and prepared to work hard to achieve worthwhile spiritual goals.

Angelic Ruler of the Order of Seraphim. According to the Apocalypse of Abraham, Jehoel took Abraham on a tour of heaven and ultimately took him to meet God. In Jewish legend, Jehoel leads the heavenly choirs that ceaselessly sing God’s praises. Jehoel is happy to help musicians, especially singers.

(Also spelled Jeliel) Angel who belongs to the Order of Seraphim. Members of this choir do not normally assist people, as they are engrossed in serving God. However, Jelial has always had an interest in stimulating love and passion inside existing relationships. You should call on Jelial if your relationship is suffering from a lack of passion.

An Italian term describing a person who is the victim of the black magic, specifically, having the evil eye cast upon them.


An Arabic term for a group of non-physical entities. These entities can be controlled by or “bound” by a magician, the most famou one being Solomon. The singular form of jinn is jinni. Today this is often confused, due to the sound, with the term genie; however that term actually derives from Latin genius meaning a guardian deity or spirit. The binding of a jinni in a bottle remains a popular myth.


Singular form of Jinn. See Jinn.

An imaginary country believed in by some people of ancient Persia (now modern Iran). It was believed that the Jinn (or genii) lived there. These Jinn were controlled by Solomon through his use of a magic ring.

A person or object that causes bad luck or unfortunate events. When a person or place experiences bad luck or unfortunate events, that person or place is said to be jinxed. Traditionally, an object may become jinxed if it is involved in a fatality considered horrible or tragic. A jinx, which is accidental and certainly not intended, should not be confused with a curse where causing unfortunate events was the purpose of a spell or other form of magick.

John Barleycorn
A popular death/rebirth figure in English folk song and folk drama (mummer’s play). John grows to be an old man, then is cut down—only to return as a jug of fine ale.

(Also known as Iophiel, Iofiel or Zophiel) (“The Beauty of God”) Angel who is believed to have guarded the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden. He also looked after Noah’s three sons. Jophiel is one of the princes of the Divine Presence, and is believed to be a close friend of Metatron. He has a strong interest in beauty, and can be invoked by anyone involved in creating beauty in any form. Jophiel helps people who are using their creativity. You should call on him whenever you need help with a creative project.


See Juju.


A West African word derived from the French term joujoy, meaning “toy.” It refers to an object imbued with some form of magickal power. See fetish.

Jupiter's Staff

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Great Mullein.

The name (also Cabire or Kaviri) or the pantheon of deities found in the Samothracian Mysteries. The source of the term seems to be ancient Chaldean and is often translated as “Fires.” The three most important Kabiri are Axieros, Axiokersa, and Axiokersos. They are some of the children of Hephaestus.

Planetary angel of Saturn.

(Also known as Kochbiel) (“Star of God”) A controversial angel who performs the honorable task of looking after the Moon and stars. However, according to some accounts, he lost his reputation by teaching humans astrology. Even worse, he was accused of mating with human women. Despite this, he still looks after astrologers, as well as the stars and their formations.


Also spelled “Cacia,” she was the ancient Greek goddess of vice and immorality. She is often shown as heavy-set, wearing revealing clothes, and with heavy make-up.


An incredibly complex version of the Goddess revered in India and by Tantrics. The name refers to the color black, as in the depths of space. Therefore She is considered the "dark one" and is shown with black or dark blue skin. The word Kali is associated with the concept of time. Therefore, she is also a feminine aspect of time. She is usually shown as being terrifying, but she is also considered to be a mother (Kali Ma). This seeming contradition indicates that Kali is also the mother who fights evil, destroys the false aspects of ego that separate us from reality, and spurs transformation. 


One (for some, the supreme) manifestation of the divine feminine in Hinduism. 

("KAHL-maa:): Finnish goddess of death.


A title of Demeter (Demeter Karpophoros), she is Demeter the goddess as a “fruitbearer” or lady of the wild things.

One of the angelic leaders of the Cherubim. His height spans all Seven Heavens and powerful flames come out of his mouth with every word he speaks. His body consists of burning coals, covered with thousands of piercing eyes. Thunder, lightning and earthquakes accompany him everywhere he goes. Despite his threatening appearance, he glows with the divine light of the Shekinah.

The four creatures (the lion, eagle, human, and bull) symbolic of the four kerubic signs of the zodiac (Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius, and Taurus) and the four elements.

King Tut's Curse
In 1922, British archeologist Howard Carter (1874–1939) discovered the previously unopened tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankamun, known popularly as “King Tut.” He informed his benefactor Lord Carnavon (George Herbert, 1866–1923), who set off from England to join Carter in opening the tomb. Carter claimed a tablet over the tomb said “Death will slay with his wings whomever disturbs the Pharaoah’s peace.” However, the tablet has never been found or seen by anyone else and it is believed by some that this was a ruse by Carter to keep people away from the tomb.

At 1:55 a.m., just few months after opening the tomb, the lights in Cairo went out and Lord Carnavon was found dead. He had cut his face shaving over an infected mosquito bite leading to blood poisoning and pneumonia. Was it the curse taking its first toll?

Within seven years, 13 people at the opening of the tomb were prematurely dead, although all by natural means. Another nine associated with the finding had also died. Carter died of natural causes at the age of 65, a skeptic of the supposed curse.

King's Crown

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the herb Black Haw.


(plural: Kobaloi) A Greek sprite fond of playing tricks on humans. Because the tricks might be frightening, a Kobalos was considered a wicked spirit and was invoked by rogues. The origin of the German Kobold and the English Goblin. 


Mischievous German sprite, most often seen as a house spirit that can perform domestic chores or play tricks. Another version describes them as a type of earth elemental spirit. Miners would blame Kobolds for problems (including poisonousness) in dealing with certain ores. Source of the name of the element cobalt. 


Daughter of Demeter, she was dragged to the underworld by Hades when she was a young girl. Demeter was so sad that she withheld the fertility of the earth. As a result Zeus commanded Hades to release Kore. However, she had consumed some pomegranate seeds which bound her to the underworld. So it was decided she’d spend part of her time above—a young maiden goddess—and part of her time below. She is a goddess of the spring.

Although only the sixth Avatar, or incarnation, of Vishnu, Krishna has developed into one of the most popular Hindu deities due to his representing unbridled sexuality. Some would downplay the reason for his popularity.

Kronos' Blood

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Cedar.

("KEWL-ikki"): means "beautiful island flower." Finnish maiden goddess, equivalent to Persephone. She was abducted by a wanton and unlucky mate.

A double-headed axe. So named because the double-headed blades symbolized the vaginal lips (the labia) spread open to reveal the clitoris and the passage into the cervix. The small orb adorning the top of the double-headed axe symbolized the clitoris.

One of Raphael’s chief angelic assistants. He can be invoked to ward off evil of any sort. Traditionally, Lahabiel was invoked to protect people from magic spells, curses, or the evil eye. However, he can be invoked whenever you see evil in any form.

The Jewish Angel of Night. Whenever a woman conceives, Lailah takes the sperm to God, who then decides what sort of person the resulting child will become. After this, God orders a soul to enter the embryo, and an angel stands guard to prevent it from escaping. Lailah looks after all matters relating to conception and pregnancy.

The Hindu goddess of prosperity, abundance, wealth, good fortune, happiness, generosity, and courage. The consort of Vishnu the preserver deity, She is said to be the very embodiment of beauty.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Lettuce.

Lamb's Ears

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Betony.

Non-physical psychic vampires said to “feed” on the energies of the sick and injured.

Law of Return

That tradition that any action will cause you to receive similar energy back. Some claim that there is a three-fold law of return, meaning what you do returns to you three times as strong. Whether you get a partial return, equal return, a three-fold return or more, the implication is that you should be careful of what spells you cast and magick you perform


See Lakshmi.

Leannan Sith
A term from Celtic shamanism (especially from Scotland) meaning "spirit mate" or "fairy sweetheart." Traditionally, as long as such a spiritual partner was pleased with a mortal mate, everything would go well. But if offended or spurned the spirit could take action with unpleasant results. Some people today, however, relate leannan sith to the spiritual aspect of the relationship of soul mates. According to one source, when the Bible was translated into Scots Gaelic, the translators used the term leannan sith. This resulted in some Scots claiming biblical proof for the existence of fairies. Should not be confused with leannan-sidhe a type of beautiful vampire (Isle of Man) or muse to poets and minstrels (Ireland).


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means "leaf."


Name of a powerful and revered Voudoun Loa. Originally a solar-phallic deity from Dahomey, Legba is now seen as an old man. However he is still a guardian, an opener of the ritual, and the Loa who is saluted first during any ritual for the purpose of communicating with other Loa.

In occult traditions, a method by which wisdom traditions are transmitted in a form that appears to be intended for an entirely different purpose; the Atlantean legend in the 19th and 20th century occultism is a classic legominism.

According to ancient Roman myths, a lemure was the ghost of a person who had died without leaving a blood heir. Dying before having a son or daughter was considered a curse.

See Larvae.


The name, meaning "River of Forgetfulness," of one of the five rivers in Greek mythology that surround Hades. The other four rivers are the Acheron ("River of Woe"), the Cocytus ("River of Wailing"), the Pyriphlegethon ("The Fiery River"), and the Styx ("The Hateful River").

Letter of Rehoboam
A text of astrological medicine and angelology, probably written by a Hellenized Jew. Solomon is the purported author, and it is framed as a letter the great king wrote to his son, Rehoboam, explaining the benefits of gaining power through the use of “plants, prayers, stones, but above all else…the seven planetary gods.” In style it fits very much with Pagan works written in Greco-Roman times. The letter, divided into seven sections, explains the order of the planets, stars, and hours, their relationship to the angels and demons. It also lists prayers, incantations, and offerings one can use to influence illness, to heal, and to shape other earthly events…While the document is superficially monotheistic, it speaks of “planetary gods (angels?)” and also has the unusual feature that most of the prayers and spells are addressed directly to the angelic beings and stars.

Lia Fail
(Pronounced “lee-ah-foyl”) The Stone of Destiny which has been brought from the Otherworld city of Falias, and which stood at Tara. Its function was to declare the True High King of Ireland by screaming aloud when the successful candidate stood upon it. The stone which stands at Tara today is probably not the original.

In medieval Jewish legend, the first wife of Adam, who insisted on being treated as an equal and was therefore put aside and replaced by Eve. Her origin is uncertain; some sources claim that she was created by God along with Adam, while others identify her as a demon from the beginning. After her separation from Adam, however, she became the mate of Samael and a demon who delighted in killing newborn infants and pregnant women.

The first reference to Lilith is in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, a Hebrew folktale dating from the tenth century. She may, however, descend from the Lilitu, who were female demons in Babylonian mythology. The angels Senoi, Sensenoi, and Semangelaph were invoked to drive her away from women in childbirth and from newborn infants.

Lilith later played a role in Cabalistic symbolism as the Qlippoth of Malkuth, the tenth sphere of the Tree of Life.


Although originally appearing as a wind or storm demon in Sumer around 6,000 years ago, the name evolved in early Jewish folokore to Lilith, the first wife of Adam. See: Lilith.

Lion Semen

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means human semen.

Lion's Hair

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It is often decoded to mean "Tongue of a Turnip." This refers to the leaves of a turnip's taproot.

Lion's Tooth

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dandelion.

Literal Kabalah
A study for interpreting the codes found in Hebrew words, especially words found in the Torah and other mystical books. Methods include Gematria, Notarikon, and Temurah.

Little Gallows Man

A name used to describe the plant mandrake (mandragora officinalis). Upon sudden death at a gallows, a man’s body would relax releasing all of the fluids within him, including semen. It was believed that a mandrake would grow where the semen of a hanged man touched the ground.

Living Statues

A legendary power attributed to Greek magicians: the ability to cause gods or spirits to enter and live in statues. These statues could then be made to provide oracular statements and answer questions through various signs. Some Living Statues were used as guardians.

An angel of creativity who can be called upon when you have doubts about your creative abilities.

Deities in Afro-Caribbean religions such as Voodoo, Santeria, etc. They enter their devotionaries, and the worshipers act like the deity and are treated as the deity by other worshipers.


Often described as and treated as a Voudoun deity, a Loa is more like an archetype or talesmanic image created through worship and invocation that temporarily houses deity. In ritual the Loa may then possess ("ride") a devotee. The term "Loa" is used as both singular and plural forms.

Love Apple

A name for tomatoes that were once thought to be an aphrodisiac. Before that it was believed they were poisonous. 


Supposed energy that attracts things to a person and is usually defined as being either good or bad. 

Lucky Hand

A root from any of several orchids. About an inch in length, it has several curving, trailing spikes, giving it the appearance of a hand. It is often used in mojo bags for luck, especially in gambling.


In Celtic lore, either a deity or a hero and king. As a deity, he is associated with the Sun.

("LWOAN-oh-tar"): Finnish goddess; daughter of nature.


Werewolf. This name is based on the ancient Greek myth of a king named Lycos. He was so cruel that the gods turned him into a wolf.

Mythical ability (some would say disease) of shapechanging, primarily the ability to change into the appearance and consciousness of a wolf.

Egyptian goddess of justice

Ancient Egyptian goddess of truth, she is often symbolized in the form of a feather. According to myth, the feather of Maat was weighed against the heart of the deceased. The afterlife of a dead person was determined by whether their heart balanced with the feather.

A famed collection of eleven Welsh stories that was originally published in 1838. Included are scenes of daily life along with Celtic folklore, magic, and Arthurian legends. Many writers and Pagans have directly or indirectly used it as resource material.

Angel who can be invoked by men seeking love.

God; divinity; the external, objective universe.

Men can wear or carry magnetite to increase their strength, courage, virility and luck. Women should not wear magnetite at any time.


See Mahatma or Ascended Masters.


Greek goddess. Oldest of the Pleiades. Daughter of Atlas and Pleione. Mother of Hermes. A nurturer. She was also honored in ancient Rome as a goddess of all forms of growth. The Roman goddess is believed to be separate from the Greek goddess, but because the name sounds alike (a homophone), they may have become mixed. The month of May might have been named after her and she became associated with the Great Goddess, one of her titles.

Angel to invoke whenever you need self-control or self-discipline.

Angel who can be invoked whenever you need the necessary courage to stand up for what you believe is right.

The “evil eye.” Also known as the “overlook.”


A local name for the Greek goddess Demeter. She was a goddess of fertility, her name meaning “apple-bearer,” The remains of a sanctuary to her exist in Sicily near the river Modione.

Man's Bile

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Turnip sap.


Hindu snake goddess. Her name comes from the Sanskrit Manas, meaning “mind.” She is the nagasvari, “Queen of the Snakes.” People pray to her for protection from snake bite.

Large, ancient stones, usually set upright. The formation at Stonehenge is an example of a megalithic structure. Many are found on ley lines. Some emit extensive magnetic fields.

According to Jewish mysticism, Mehiel is the angel who looks after writers, teachers and communicators.

Also spelled Melchisedek, an angel who belongs to the Order of Virtues. Dionysius the Areopagite wrote that he was the hierarch most loved and favored by God. St. Hippolytus (170–235), the Christian leader and antipope, considered Melchizedek to be more important than Jesus Christ. In The Book of Mormon, Melchizedek is the prince of peace. Melchizedek can be called upon when you need peace, tranquility, and the love of God.


A Greek nymph who was loved by Hades. When she claimed she was more beautify than Persephone, the goddess trampled her into the ground and changed into a mint. Therefore, she is considered the goddess of mint plants.


A mythic wise man of ancient England, it is presumed he was a Druid. Merlin supposedly advised and helped King Arthur overcome invasions of Britain by the Saxons after the Roman legions pulled out in the 5th century c.e.

Chancellor of Heaven and one of the leaders of the Seraphim. Metatron is the most important angel in Jewish lore, which probably accounts for his name, which means “the throne beside the throne of God.” According to legend, Metatron was originally Enoch, a man who lived for three-hundred-and-sixty-five years on earth before “God took him” and turned him into an angel (Genesis 5:23–24). Metatron, the angel, has 365,000 eyes and 36 wings. Enoch had been a scribe before his transformation, and has continued working as God’s secretary. In Jewish belief, Metatron carries Jewish prayers through 900 heavens directly to God. According to The Zohar, Metatron combines both human and angelic perfection, and this serves him in good stead in his role of ruling the entire world. Fortunately, he has seventy angelic princes to help him in this work. You should call on Metatron whenever you are engaged in deep thought.

A Sar (Princely Angel) who features prominently in Jewish esoteric literature. The name “Metatron” itself is a puzzle, being a Greek derived word meaning either meta-thronos, “beyond the throne,” metator, “guide,” or meta-tetra, “beyond the four [Angels of the Countenance].”


Originally a goddess of Asia Minor, she became associated with Cybelle and Rhea, and became their title, Meter Theon meaning “mother of the gods.” She is a goddess of nature and fertility.

(“Who is like God”) This archangel is considered to be the greates angel in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. This is not surprising, as Michael is God’s most important warrior angel, who fights for everything that is good, honorable and righteous. Michael is Ruler of the Order of Virtues, Chief of the Archangels, Prince of the Presence, and Angel of Repentance. Michael threw Satan out of heaven after the battle between the good and evil angels. Michael also has the task of accompanying souls back to heaven after physical death. Michael is often shown carrying scales, as he has the important task of weighing souls to determine their worthiness at the Last Judgment.

Archangel of the South and of elemental Fire.

("MY-ay-likki"): Finnish forest crone goddess. Creator of the bear.

According to the Kabbalah, Mihael is the angel of fertility. Mihael can also be invoked to ensure loyalty and faithfulness.


The practices and beliefs of a mystery religion that developed in the Roman Empire between 100 c.e. and 400 c.e. The name comes from the Persian deity Mithras. Following in a legend attributed to Mithras, part of the initiation may have included a grate under which initiates stood. A Bull was sacrificed above them, allowing the blood to rain on the new initiates. It had seven initiatory degrees, and due to its popularity among the Roman military, it was spread throughout the empire. Although even the Romans considered the religion to be based on Persian sources, the actual Persian Mithraic mysteries seem to have been different and what we know as Mithraism is probably exclusively Roman in origin.


A deity born from a rock and often shown sacrificing a bull. The source may be ancient Persia. He is associated with the Sun and there are stories about him that are mirrored in the later stories of the birth and life of Jesus. The worship of Mithras became popular among Roman soldiers. Little is know of this mystery religion other than that initiates stood under a grate and a bull was sacrificed above, allowing the initate to be showered in blood.

Hebrew word that means both blessing and commandment.


Mycenaean goddess of wisdom and memory. Due to an ancient tablet, some believe her worship may have involved an annual human sacrifice. Her worship did not carry into other cultures and was lost with the end of the Mycenaean period which lasted from about 1600 b.c.e. to 1100 b.c.e.



A Greek Titan, she was the goddess of memory (her name means “remembrance”), especially rote memory, and time. She is credited with the invention of words, language, and eventually oracles. She was the mother of the muses.


A Greek goddess of fate. She had more power than any of the gods, even Zeus.


(From the Congolese moyo, meaning “life force” or “soul”). A type of magic charm used in hoodoo practices. It often consists of various small items collected in a small flannel bag and may be magically charged with a ritual. The bag, often red in color and closed with a drawstring, is typically worn under a person’s clothes.

Creatures, either physical or non-physical, that we interpret as being frightening. They may have what we consider to be a horrific appearance and may be very large in size. Monsters are often considered to be imaginary, however real creatures that we consider to be monsters may exist or may have existed. They could also be misinterpretations of non-horrific natural phenomena.

One of the most famous of such creatures is the “Loch Ness Monster” who is called a monster because of its size and sudden appearances. Some claim it is a fraud while others suggest a left over dinosaur, a misinterpretation of a branch, or possibly even a circus elephant. People around Loch Ness affectionately refer to their monster as “Nessie,” and tourism created by people looking for the creature has helped the local economy.

The angel who appeared to Joseph Smith, founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and told him where to dig up the golden plates that contained the Book of Mormon.

Fictional lost continent of the Pacific, invented by James Churchward in the early 20th century and identified with Lemuria by later writers.

Mumbo Jumbo
Although most frequently used to indicate meaningless words that are supposed to have magickal effects but in reality have no power at all, the origin may be a corruption of the Mandingo language where ma-ma-gyo-mbo means means a magician who makes the troubled spirits of ancestors depart. Another version says it’s a corruption of the Mandingo words Mama Dyumbo. Its first use was in 1738 where it was described as the name of an idol worshiped in Africa. Its first use meaning empty talk was in 1896.

Mummer's Play
A folk death/rebirth Mystery play from the British Isles. Characters include a Fool, Hobby Horse, Hero (St. George, Robin Hood, John Barleycorn), Doctor, and Man-Woman.

Angel who is one of the regents of the choir of Dominions. Muriel is also responsible for the astrological sign of Cancer, and looks after July. Muriel can be invoked whenever your emotions need to be kept under control.

Music of the Spheres
An ancient concept that the movement of the planets and stars produces a beautiful form of sound that can be heard by spiritually enlightened people.


A symbolic story illustrating the lives of important people or deities with the goal of presenting their temperament, beliefs, principles, ethics and morals by means of a memorable story. Most religious, ethnic, cultural, and patriotic groups have one or more myths that describe the nature of the group.

A demeaning term that refers to the religions of others. I prefer use of the term “sacred stories” to describe the activities of deities. The word “mythology” should not be perceived as referring to false religious concepts, for all religions bear truth.


An interrelated set of myths and beliefs that manifest in a group’s values and attitudes.


A Greek spirit presiding over fresh moving water such as springs, fountains, wells, brooks, streams, etc. 

Need Fire

A fire produced by friction of wood against wood or rope on a stake. It was used as a magickal tool against disease. For example, cattle would be driven through it to fight the disease known as murrain. In some Pagan traditions a need fire was used to kindle a bonfire at Beltane

Negative Golden Rule
Don’t do unto other if you would not have them do the same unto you.


Celtic fairy and spirit of the frenzy and havoc of soldiers during a battle. Soldiers would pray for her blessings.

Angel who belongs to the choir of Archangels and has a strong interest in just causes. You should invoke Nemamiah whenever you are seeking justice.


Greek goddess of vengeance and retribution. She was a personification of resentment towards those who received benefits as a result of evil actions, and who had good fortune even though it was undeserved. 

The Qabalistic Part of the Soul that represents the seat of the primal instincts of survival and procreation; also referred to as the animal soul. The Nephesch is attributed to Yesod and Malkuth.


Egyptian daughter of Geb (the Earth God), and Nuit or Nut (the Sky Goddess) and sister of Isis, she is considered the mistress of the house. She is the goddess of Divine Assistance and is shown as a human woman with the head of a falcon or vulture. She is also shown as a nurse of Horus and of the Pharaoh. Some are surprised that she is sometimes shown as ferocious and dangerous, not realizing the power of a mother. Her rites sometimes included drinking lots of the favored Egyptian alcoholic beverage, beer. 

The Qabalistic Part of the Soul that represents understanding and intuition. The Neschamah is attributed to Binah.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Hops.

Norse Universe

Description of the universe as seen by the ancient people of Northern Europe.

Northern Tradition

The spiritual and magickal tradition of ancient northern Europe.

(now-dawns) - The Celtic god who represented the old retired king, a wizard and mystical grandfatherly figure. He was the blemished king, a wild-old-man god and a law-giver. He was called Nuada Airgetlamh (noo-uh Arriget-louw) in Old Irish, Hudd (Neethe) or Llud Laww Ereint (hleethe hlouw air-eint) in Welsh.

The first deity in Aleister Crowley’s The Book of the Law, the goddess of infinite space associated with the night sky.


(Also Nut) The Egyptian sky goddess whom we see as arched as the sky overhead with only finger tips and toes touching the Holy Earth—who is also Geb, her husband. Beneath Nuit, Geb is often shown with an erect penis for it through their union that all is born. Geb is also her brother, and Nuit and Geb are the parents of Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, and Set. (Note: "Incestuous" relationships are common in all mythology and that has no pertinence to humanity. Myth's pertinence is to the inner understanding of cosmic energies.)

Nuit is also matter, and Hadit (also her husband, or masculine counterpart) is motion. Nuit is an infinite Circle, while Hadit is the infinitely small point at the core of everything.

“Fire of God.” The angel of beauty and passion.

An important esoteric symbol in Judaism, representing secrets. The “garden of nuts” mentioned in the Song of Songs (6:11) becomes the focus of considerable mystical speculation. Some understand it as a symbol of the secret Torah concealed beneath the plain sense of the words. Others see it as illustrating the spiritual reality of the divine sparks trapped in husks of evil that characterize the lower worlds…Eleazer of Worms understood it as a symbol of the divine chariot. It is customary to abstain from eating nuts in the weeks leading up to the High Holidays because the gematria [numerological] value of egoz [nut] is the same as chet, the word for sin.

Chief of the gods and the ruler of the universe in Norse mythology. The German form of his name is Woden or Wotan. The name Wednesday is derived from Woden’s day. In mythology Odin was the son of the frost giant Bor and the giantess Bestla. Odin’s sacred bird is the raven, and his principal weapon is the spear. He is depicted as tall, bearded, and one-eyed, having exchanged an eye for wisdom. In pre-Christian Scandinavia the Odin cult appears to have included human sacrifice which involved hanging the sacrificial victim from a tree.

(oh-um) - The notches and lines carved on sticks and stones by the Irish filidh and other learned folk.

Also known as Ogum, the warrior god and Lord of Iron among the Yorubas of Africa and followers of Macumba. His color is red. Mars is one of his subservient spirits. In Afro-Caribbean religions, where the worship of the ancient gods was hidden in a Christian veneer, Ogun is often associated with St. George. In some places he is associated with St. Anthony.

Any of a group of Gnostic sects, primarily centered in Egypt and Syria and dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries C.E. These sects focused on the serpent of the tale of Adam and Eve. The saw the serpent as positive and God as negative, the evil demiurge.

Ophite sects included the Naasseners, the Sethians, the Perates, and the Borborites who performed a type of sex magick focused on consuming sexual and other fluids as part of the eucharist. What is known about these sects primarily comes through the writings of people attacking them.

Another Ophite sect, the secretive Mandaeans, revere some Biblical figures such as Adam, Noah, and John the Baptist, but consider Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad to be false Prophets. The Mandaean religion exists to this day. Most lived in Iraq, but persecution in Iraq and Iran led many to leave for Europe, Australia, and North America. The 2003 war caused most to flee Iraq. Now only about 5,000 remain there while 60,000 or more have fled.

Oral Tradition

A set of beliefs, often spiritual, religious, or magickal, that are not written down.

Oral Tradition

A secretive set of information that is not written and is used to explain, expand, or modify written spiritual, religious, magickal, or other sets of knowledge.

Orchids are considered aphrodisiacs. This belief probably came from its physical appearance. Some orchids possess a pair of tubers that have been related to testicles. The name “orchid” comes from the Greek word for testicles, orchis. Men ate the larger tuber of an orchid when they wished to have a male child, and the smaller uber when they wanted a female child.

A type of orchid. Below ground many orchids have tuberoids composed of both root and stem tissue and used for storage. In this orchid the tuberoids appear in pairs, giving the orchid its name, orchis, which is Greek for testicle. The root of the Orchis is considered a remedy to be used against enchantments. Also known as “Adam and Eve Root” and used in folk magick for love charms.

Archangel of the North and of elemental Earth.


The form of Artemis used in the city-state of Sparta. Her name means “upright,” although some claim her name means “She who safely rears children after birth,” “she who heals the sick,” or even "she who causes erections." Her sacred day is July 15. She was also known as Hermione or Iphigeneia.


Egyptian god of the dead and of the underworld. He is shown as having a beard like the Pharoah and skin that is green. His crown has ostrich feathers on either side and he holds the ruling emblems of the shepard’s crook and a flail. Osiris is the brother and husband of Isis. He is also considered a god of the Nile floods and therefore a god of agriculture. Some see him as a king of the gods and a god of law and education.

The non-physical realms which interlock with this world, but which are not obvious to the physical senses. The world of the deities and non-human beings who inhabit our universe. More often referred to as the Inner Levels nowadays.


A circular symbol of a snake with its tail in its mouth. It symbolizes completeness, oneness, and sacredness. According to the psychologist Jung, when this symbol begins to appear in the art of a culture, that culture has begun to differentiate itself from the surrounding environment and from other cultures.

The act of using the evil eye to curse someone.

A Greek god whose counterpart in Roman mythology is Faunus, and he is connected to the worship of Dionysis/Bacchus. In Greek mythology Pan and Apollo had a contest to determine which would play the sweetest notes most skillfully, Pan on his reeds or Apollo on his lyre. Pan was judged the winner, which insulted Apollo. In a rage, Apollo turned Pan’s ears into those of an animal.

To the Greeks Pan was a god of woodlands, pastures, herds, and fertility. Hills, caves, oaks, and tortoises were sacred to Pan. He fought on the side of the gods of Olympus, against the Titans. Fashioning a giant seashell into a trumpet, Pan raised such a noise that the Titans thought a sea monster was attacking, and fled in terror. From this myth is derived the word “panic.” Pan was also known as Hylaeos, whose form is the one now commonly depicted as the god Pan. He wooed and won the goddess Selene (Diana) among others.


The myth of Pandora is rich and complex. The Titan Prometheus, and his dim-witted brother Epimetheus, choose to fight with Zeus against their fellow Titans. Later, Prometheus gives fire to humans contrary to Zeus’ wish. This angers Zeus, who wants to thank Epimetheus for his help against the Titans yet punish Prometheus. Zeus has the god Hephaestus make a beautiful woman, modeled after the goddess Aphrodite, from water and earth. Zeus then has his fellow Olympians each give Pandora a gift. Indeed, her name means “rich in gifts.” He gives Pandora to Epimetheus but also gives her a box or jar with a warning never to open it. Zeus’ wife Hera gives Pandora the gift of curiosity, leading to the inevitable. She opens the box and releases all evil onto the Earth. Hidden at the bottom, though, is Hope, who gives us a reason to continue on through a world filled with evil.

Superficially, the story is about how evil and hope came to the world. It also is a story of godly power and revenge against those who exhibit hubris by going against the will of the Gods. Finally, some modern feminists have pointed out that this is also anti-woman, as it is a woman who is called the cause of evil in the world (similar to some interpretations of Eve in the Bible) even though it is males who are responsible.

The complete set of deities of a people or religion.

One of the seven angels who stand in front of the Holy Throne of God. Paschar can be called upon if you are seeking help in prophecy or divination.

Patron Deity
A particular Goddess or God adopted by a person or group. The followers honor and/or worship that deity who, in turn, acts as a guardian and protector, often giving advantages to the followers. Also known as a tutelary deity.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means a leaf.


Greek goddess of persuasion and eloquence. However, there is a bit more to this than simply being a nice speaker. Through the use of persuasion, you could create not merely change, but desire on the part of the person you were speaking to. Therefore Peitho is also considered a goddess of seduction—the use of language to create desire for you in another.

Angel to be invoked if you are working on a worthwhile project, but are finding it hard to accomplish. Perpetiel will help you achieve success.


Greek goddess of the new moon. She was the consort of the Sun god Helios and with him bore several children, known as the Perseides, including Circe.


Greek goddess of innocence and Queen of the Underworld, also known as Proserpina. Daughter of Demeter and Zeus,. As a child she was known as Kore (“young maiden”). As she became a beautiful woman she was desired and eventually abducted by Hades (with Zeus’ permission) whom she grew fond of and married. She spent part of her time on the surface with her mother and is associated with the growth of spring.


Beautiful bird of Egyptian mythology. It was said to build its own funeral pyre, and then be reborn from its own ashes. A symbol of rebirth, new starts, second chances, and reincarnation.

Physician's Bone

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Sandstone.

Pig's Tail

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Leopard's Bane, a daisy-like flower.


A column used to support a structure. Often used symbolically to represent one thing supporting another. In pairs they represent the sides of a portal. In triads they represent things in opposition and the balance between them.

Planetary Ages
An ancient association of planets with a person’s age, indicating phases in that person’s life.

Moon: (Birth–4 yrs.) Personal growth
Mercury: (5–14 yrs.) Education
Venus: (15–22 yrs.) Emotions
Sun: (23–42 yrs.) Virility
Mars: (43–57 yrs.) Ambition
Jupiter: (58–69 yrs.) Reflection
Saturn: (70 yrs. on) Resignation


Greek goddess of retribution.

A doll made to represent a person for the use of magic on that person. It may look like that person, but is more often primitive and symbolic, made of wax, clay, cloth, paper, or other materials. It is believed to work according to the ideas of “like attracts like,” or sympathetic magic.

As with any form of magic, the nature of work with a poppet is neutral. It can be used as a focus for a healing ritual or to bring prosperity, wisdom, or romance. However, it can also be used to harm. The most famous example of this is the famous sticking of pins into the doll to negatively affect a person in the area where the pin is inserted.

Pow Wow
Name for the type of folk magick performed by the Pennsylvania Dutch. Keys to its practice are found in the books the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses and Long Lost Friend by Hohman.

The sixth-highest rank of angels according to Dionysius. Their task is to ensure that all laws of the universe work perfectly.

Powers of the Sphinx
The Adept: to know, to will, to dare, and to keep silent. Aleister Crowley added a fifth Power of the Sphinx, to go.

Practical Kabalah
Refers to Kabalistic methods of making talismans and amulets.


Greek goddess of vengeance and judicial punishment. Considered a form of Persephone or Dike, the goddess of justice.


Associated with the deity Priapus. See ithyphallic


Greek fertility god who was also the protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens, and male genitals. He is noted for a large, erect penis (from which we get the medical term Priapism) and his worship included sexual practices. 

Priest's Crown

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dandelion.

The seventh-highest ranked angels in Dionysius’ hierarchy. They guide and assist leaders, rulers, and nations. They also assist religions in spreading the truth, and supervise the rise and fall of nations.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means "seed."

A charm against the evil eye worn by children in ancient Greece. Shaped like a phallus, it was also used to protect homes, forges and chariots. Other names for it include baskanion and fascinum. In Rome it was called a satyrica sigma.


See: Persephone


Greek goddess of the soul, symbolized by a butterfly. Her myth is that she was a mortal so beautiful that Aphrodite hated her and ordered Eros to make her fall in love with the most hideous man. But he loved her and whisked her away to his palace, ordering her to never look at his face. She eventually does and he abandons her. She searches the world for her lost love, and ends up serving Aphrodite who orders her to do a series of difficult tasks, including a trip to the Underworld. Eventually she is reunited with Eros and they are married with the gods attending. Psychologically her journey is symbolic of the individual’s path to wholeness.


In the sciences the term refers to the mind.


A spiritual term meaning "the soul."


An extrabiblical concept taken from the fiction of Dante and adopted for centuries by Roman Catholic doctrine describing a place where the souls of sinners who are redeemable and not damned to Hell may suffer—sometimes described in horrible ways—to expiate sins before moving on to heaven.



The three lower sub-planes of the Astral World in which the emotional consciousness is slowly “purged” (purified) of self-inflicted judgments and suffering—much of which originates in religious illusions as in the “hell and damnation” preaching of Christian evangelists. Neither Hell nor Purgatory has any objective existence but are nevertheless subjectively real to the sufferer until he can free himself of these illusions.

The origin of the word is debatable, although some have claimed it comes from forms of “pyr,” meaning “fire,” and “mid,” meaning middle, hence “fire in the middle.” A pyramid is the name for any three-dimensional object where the base is a polygon and the sides are triangles which meet at one point above the base. The most common forms have a base with three sides (such as used at the top of the pillars used by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn) or four sides. Four-sided pyramids were created in large sizes by the ancients all over the world. The pyramid structures had many purposes ranging from temples to mausoleums. It is believed by some that the angles of the Great Pyramid on the Giza plateau have some sort of power that can be reproduced at any size. Models of that pyramid have been used for such things as improving sleep, intensifying dreams, preventing decay in foods, and even keeping razor blades sharp. Although most archeologists and scholars believe that the Great Pyramid was used as a tomb, questions about the design have led others to claim it was used for initiations into magickal groups or for signaling UFOs.


The name, meaning "Fiery River," of one of the five rivers in Greek mythology that surround Hades. The other four rivers are the Acheron ("River of Woe"), the Cocytus ("River of Wailing"), the Lethe ("River of Forgetfulness"), and the Styx ("The Hateful River").

Alternate spelling of Kabala (Also Kabbala, Kabbalah, Quabalah, Cabalah, Kabalah, etc.).

Ra Hoor Khuit
(Ancient Egyptian Re Heru-khuti, “Ra as Horus of both horizons”) In

The still popular concept that humans have different sources and have intrinsic differences as indicated by physical appearance. According to Theosophists, humanity has gone through different stages of evolution (rather than a continuous development), and each stage produced a “root-race,” with each of the seven root-races having seven sub-races. Unfortunately, this concept became popular during the last part of the 19th century and supported the racism, anti-Semitism, and imperialism, that fueled (and still fuels) wars and hatred. Today, modern science considers the concept of race to be false and unscientific.

(“Friend of God”) Sometimes known as Phanuel, he supervises the behavior of his fellow angels and is Ruler of the Order of Dominions. Some people believe it was Raguel who brought Enoch to heaven. Raguel is considered a kind, caring assistant to God. You should call on Raguel if you are trying to affirm or strengthen your faith.

Ram's Head

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means American Valerian.

(“God Heals”) One of the most important archangels. Raphael is considered Regent of the Sun, Ruler of the Second Heaven, and Chief of the Order of Virtues. He has a special interest in healing, creativity, knowledge, science, communication, travel, and young people. Raphael has been considered a guardian angel since he acted as Tobias’ guardian in the Book of Tobit. He also looks after the guardian angels. In effect, Raphael is the guardian angel of humanity.

Archangel of the East and elemental Air.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Valerian.

(“Secret of God”) The wise angel who felt sorry for Adam and Eve when they were banished from the Garden of Eden and gave Adam The Book of the Angel Raziel. This book contained all the knowledge of the universe, and enabled Adam to make a life for himself outside the garden. After Adam’s death, the book was eventually found by Enoch, who memorized it and became the wisest man of his time. Later still, it came into the hands of Noah, who used it to help build his ark. Hundreds of years later, the book belonged to King Solomon, who used it to create magic.

Unfortunately, after his death, the book disappeared. You should contact Raziel whenever you need answers to imponderable questions. Raziel particularly enjoys helping original thinkers develop their ideas.

Red Cockscomb

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Amaranth.

Angel who belongs to the choir of Powers, and is the angel of longevity. Rehael can be invoked for health matters, self-respect, and respect for others (especially parents).

Rejected Knowledge Movement
A cultural movement of late 19th, 20th, and 21st century industrial societies that opposed the worldview of contemporary materialist science and proposed a variety of alternative worldviews to replace it.

Religion and Mythology
When linked together, the study of the spiritual beliefs—defined either as religion or myth—as held by a person, group of people, or culture.

The return to life of someone or something that has been dead.

Robin Hood
The quintessential Green Man, and still one of England’s best-loved heroes. He is immortalized in folk (mummer’s) plays and epic ballads.

The angel of lost property. He can be invoked when anything is misplaced or lost.

Jewish tradition tells of staffs endowed with miraculous powers. Specifically, the staff of Aaron was transformed into a serpent and was the instrument for summoning the first three plagues against Egypt. Aaron’s rod, however, also delivered signs when not in his hands, as when it budded and blossomed overnight as part of a trial by ordeal. Moses also possessed a rod he used in performing miraculous deeds.

Later tradition claims all Biblical references to staves actually allude to a single magical rod that was given to Adam, then traveled with the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Kings of Israel across history. This rod, created on the eve of the sixth day, was made of either sapphire or almond wood and bore an inscription of the Tetragrammaton as well as an acrostic phrase constructed from the initials for the Ten Plagues. Like Excalibur, only the rightful owner could withdraw the rod once it was planted in the ground.

Hidden away by Elijah, in time the staff will reappear as a weapon in the hands of Hephzibah, the mother of the Messiah. It then will pass from her to the Messiah ben Joseph and then to the Messiah ben David who will wield it in end-times struggles.

Christianity developed additional magical traditions about this legendary staff, regarding it to be a relic from the Tree of Life and linking it closely to various Biblical figures and finally to Jesus, for whom the staff served as the cross beam of his crucifix.

A symbol of Kabbalah, according to the Zohar, the “thirteen petalled rose” is the mystical body of the people Israel, through whom God’s thirteen attributes are activated in Creation.

Royal Touch

The belief, especially found in France and England, that royalty had special supernormal and god-like powers, including that the mere touch of royalty could cure various ailments, especially scrofula or the “King’s Evil,” a nasty looking but rarely-fatal disease of the lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis.

Angel known as the “gambler’s friend.” He can be invoked whenever playing games of chance.


An alternate name for the Indian god Shiva and the collective name (the Rudras) for a group of storm gods also known as the maruts. Sometimes the maruts are known as the "Sons of Rudra." The name itself may mean the "roarer" or the "howler." Rudra also refers to a Tantric Yoga breathing practice for controlling the kundalini energy that involves visualization and retention.

An herb native to the Mediterranean area, much used in traditional natural magic. It is a common protective herb against hostile magic and will banish evil spirits. Hunter’s lore holds that if you rub an arrow with rue, it will always find its mark.

Angel considered to be the Lord of Jupiter and a member of the choir of Cherubim. He has an interest in legal matters, good fortune, expansion, and beneficence. He is often invoked on financial matters. Sachiel is willing to help you earn money, but will not help you obtain money for nothing.

Angel known as the Prince of Wisdom. He provides wisdom, knowledge and understanding. He teaches patience and forgiveness. It is possible that Sagnessagiel is another name for Metatron.

(“Communicant of God”) Listed as one of the seven main archangels in The Book of Tobit and The Book of Esdras. Salaphiel’s main task is to help people pray. You should call on him for help if you find yourself easily distracted while praying, and if you want to learn how to pray more effectively.

Originally considered an evil angel in Judaism. Samael means “blind god.” In this sense, “blind” means “ignorant,” and the Gnostics considered ignorance to be the seat of evil. Today, Samael is considered a protective angel, who provides persistence and courage whenever necessary. Samael is willing to help us deal with our enemies in a gentle manner, to defuse and eliminate long-lasting difficulties.

The angel of fertility. Anyone having problems with conception can invoke Samandiriel and ask for help. Samandiriel can also be called upon on any matter concerning imagination, visualization, and creativity.

Also spelled “Sandalfon,” he assists Metatron to weave Jewish prayers into garlands for God to wear on his head. Despite his preference for Jewish prayers, Sandalphon is willing to carry any prayer to heaven. According to Jewish legend, Sandalphon was originally the prophet Elijah and is considered Metatron’s twin brother. According to the Bible, “Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.” (2 Kings 2:11) Sandalphon is extremely tall, and it is believed that it would take five hundred years to climb from his feet to the top of his head.


Literally "She who flows,"Saraswati (the energetic consort of Brahma) is the goddess of music, the arts, and learning. She is usually shown holding a stringed instrument similar in shape to a sitar but known as a vina. Sometimes spelled Sarasvati.

(“God’s Command”) According to the Book of Enoch, Sariel was one of the original seven archangels. Sariel helps people who want to learn. In Hebrew lore, Sariel encouraged Moses to study. He is also interested in healing, and assists Raphael in this work. Sariel provides guidance whenever it is needed. Sariel is frequently invoked in ceremonial magic and provides protection against the evil eye.

Hebrew for “accuser.” In Jewish tradition, you do not find the word by itself; rather it has the letter for the sound “ha” (meaning the article “the”) before it, clearly indicating that the name represents a position rather than a particular entity. “The Satan” could not do anything by itself, and is more like what would today be called a “devil’s advocate.”

In Christian theology, Satan became a specific entity, the representation of and cause of all that was bad, and the foe of God. Thus Christian theology became more dualistic in having a God of good (Jesus) and a God of evil (Satan) fighting over humans. This is closer to the concepts found in Gnosticism and Zoroastrianism.

A creature combining human and animal natures in one body. Its lower half is that of a goat and its upper torso is that of a human. However the ears of the satyr were often pointed. In ancient lore the satyrs were followers of the go Dionysus/Bacchus as well as of Faunus and Pan. Related creatures known as the Seleni differed in appearance only by their ears which were those of a horse. Unlike satyrs, the seleni were considered wise and gentle creatures. Their leader was known as Selenus, a tutor to the god Dionysos in his youth.

In occult symbolism, the satyr symbolized the primal force of sexual energy. This was often exhibited in the Mystery cults by open and unbridled sexual license. Such revelry was simply the physical counterpart of the spiritual ecstasy associated with the rites of liberation in the cult of Dionysus.

Satyrica Sigma
A charm against the evil eye worn by children in ancient Rome. Shaped like a phallus, it was also used to protect homes, forges, and chariots. In Greece it was called a probaskanion or fascinum.

Screech Owl
According to superstition, hearing the cry of a screech owl at midnight is a portent of some form of evil.

Angel frequently invoked by prospectors and people searching for hidden treasure such as gold and diamonds.

Seed of Horus

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Horehound.

Semen of Ammon

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Houseleek.

Semen of Ares

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Clover.

Semen of Helios

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means White Hellebore.

Semen of Hephaistos

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Fleabane.

Semen of Herakles

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means mustard rocket or yellow rocket.

Semen of Hermes

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dill.

Also spelled “Serapiel,” this angel is one of the leaders of the Seraphim. St. Francis is one of the few humans to have seen a seraph. You cannot invoke a seraph, but you can ask Seraphiel to provide you with peace of mind.

(“The Burning Ones”) These are the highes-tranking of the nine choirs of angels, and are the angels closest to God. They have four faces and six wings. Their light they give off is so strong that humans could not exist in their presence. The seraphim fly endlessly around the celestial throne singing, “Holy, Holy, Holy.”

In Jewish mystical tradition, the metaphoric number of nations in the world. Each has its own language and presiding angel to be an advocate for the nation before God. The angels will, in parallel with their mortal counterparts, form alliances, conspire, and/or fight one another. At the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, seventy bulls were sacrificed in the Temple for the sake of all the nations.

(“Light of Day”) According to Jewish tradition, Shamshiel is the angel who looks after the Garden of Eden. He gave Moses a guided tour of the garden. He is prepared to help anyone who has a genuine desire to improve his or her garden.

The supposed change, usually temporary, of the essence of a person from human being to that of another living creature. The most famous myth of shapeshifting is that of the werewolf. Although some people claim the appearance change is physical, most acknowledge that it is spiritual. Inwardly, this changes the mind-set of the practitioner, enabling the person to experience all of the benefits and disadvantages of being another animal. For example, you can experience the strength, speed, and enhanced senses of a lion by shapeshifing into being a lion. The chosen animal also appears in a person’s aura, so others—even if they can’t see auras—may get the impression that the person is the animal and not human. In the movie “Altered States,” the main character shapeshifts from human to pre-human form. The myth of the vampire, according to Bram Stoker’s book Dracula, indicates that the vampire can shapeshift to wolf, rat, spider, or mote of dust on a moonbeam. Shapeshifting is most commonly practiced by shamans.

Pronounced “Sheh-chen-ah,” it personifies the energy known as Ruach Eloheem as feminine. Similar to the Tantric notion of Shakti.

A word from the Tanach meaning ground or earth. In some instances it was translated as “Hell,” probably for political reasons. There is no Hell in the Kabalah because reincarnation is a part of the tradition.


Naked female carvings found in odd places on ancient hurches in Western Europe, and especially in England. They are shown grinning and holding their labia wide open. They are considered to be a Goddess symbol and it is believed by some that they were made by Pagan artisans who built the church. Thus, even though they went to a Christian church, they could still worship the Goddess.


See sheila-na-gig

In Jewish tradition, the Shekinah is the feminine aspect of God. Shekinah means shelter or dwelling place. She is the Great Mother of the universe, the Queen of Heaven. She is believed to be the angel Jacob referred to as “The angel which redeemed me from all evil.” (Genesis 48:16) Jewish mystics tell how the Shekinah was separated from her lover, God the Father, after Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden. Ever since then they have been together only on Friday night, the eve of the Sabbath. They will be finally reunited when the original light of Creation returns to its source. Fortunately, every act of love, generosity and compassion brings the couple closer together. The Shekinah provides unity, peace of mind, and delights in helping all lovers.

One of the sons of Noah, he is the only one not cursed for “exposing the nakedness” of his father. He is the progenitor of all Asians, including the Children of Israel. He learned a number of occult arts from his father, including the use of herbs to counter demons and astrology. According to Rabbinic tradition, he established the first House of Study for Torah (even though it had yet to be given at Mount Sinai).

The 72-letter name of God attributed to the decans (10° divisions) of the zodiac.

The 72-letter name of God or Shemhamphorash is a bit of a misnomer. It actually only begins with 72 letters which are the first letters of the names of 72 angels.

It so happens that in the Bible, in Exodus chapter 14, the verses 19, 20 and 21 each have exactly 72 letters when seen in the original Hebrew. Occultists would write the first verse in normal fashion (right to left). Beneath that they would right the second verse in a reversed (left to right) manner, and in a third row beneath the first two they would write the 21st verse in the normal fashion. Thus, reading from top to bottom, there are 72 three-letter words. To each, alternatively would be added either –el (a suffix being one of the names of God, this one attributed to Hesed on the Tree of Life) or –yah (the God name attributed to Chochma on the Tree of Life).

The result is 72 names of angels ending in either -yah or –el. For example, the first two names thus formed are Vehuyah and Yehliel. Together, the 72 names form the entire 72-letter name of God, the Shemhamphorash.

The ancient Hebrew name for the place all people go to after death. There is no concept of eternal punishment. Only a shadow or “shade” of the living person survives. Later, this was considered a waiting area before resurrection to the “bosom of Abraham.” When the Hebrew was translated into Greek, the term was translated as “Hades,” resulting in giving the term new meaning. There is no “Hell,” in the sense of a place of eternal (or temporary) punishment, in the earliest Jewish or Kabalistic traditions. However, some Christians who believe in this concept have grafted it onto Kabalistic thought.

Shepherd's Heart

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the herb Shepherd's Purse.

One of the three major Hindu deities and a primary deity in traditional Tantra, Shiva is commonly known as a “destroyer,” although “transformer” might be more accurate.


Male deity, one of three Gods in the Hindu trinity, often described as the God of destruction and the lord of the yogis. Shiva is the most important male deity in modern Tantra. 

(shee) - "Peace" in Old Irish. Aes Sidhe, "or people of peace," is the name for the spirits and ghosts of the Otherworld.

Simon Magus
Probably a real person living in the first century c.e., although his miracles may have been mythologized. Simon taught a form of Gnosticism and worked miracles, including such things as levitation, imperviousness to fire, and causing statues to move. St. Peter’s secretary, Clement I, called Simon a counterpart to St. Paul and the left hand of God.

His followers began to believe that he was God in human form. This made him a threat to the Catholic Church resulting in his label as the “first heretic” and his form of the faith, commonly called “Simonianism,” as a heresy.

An apocryphal (non-Biblical) book, the Acts of Peter, gives a legend of his death. While in Rome demonstrating his power of levitation, St. Peter prays to God to stop him and Simon Magus—also known as Simon the Sorcerer and Simon of GATT—falls to the ground breaking his legs. The crowd, which had been in his favor, becomes angered and stones him to death.


See left-hand path

Six Six Six

See 666.

Skin of Man

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It simply means a fern.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Skullcap Mushroom.


A term used in shamanic traditions that personifies the deity of the sky as a male. Because it is a complement to the concept of Mother Earth, the term Skyfather has been adopted for use by some Pagan and Wiccan traditions.

An old superstition says that it’s dangerous to wake someone who is sleepwalking. This fear is due to a belief that the soul leaves the body during sleep. This explained people’s dreams in which they traveled freely anywhere around the world. If you woke a sleepwalker, the soul would be absent, and the person would die.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Bistort.

Snake's Ball of Thread

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Soapstone.


English version of the Hebrew Shloh-mo, Solomon was mythically the son of King David and who became the King of the united Israel from about 970 b.c.e to 931 b.c.e. (authorities differ on the exact dates). He was the final king before Israel split into two kingdoms, the northern Kingdom or Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah. During his reign, the temporary home of God was converted into what has been called the First Temple in Jerusalem. He was known for having great riches and being very wise. Among practitioners of Islam he is considered a prophet and known as Sulayman.

Over the aeons, a great many legends concerning Solomon have evolved. Symbolism used in Masonry is based upon Solomon's building of the Temple. He became known as a great magician and exorcist. The style of magick attributed to him is called Solomonic.


Greek version of the Egyptian “Sopdet,” the goddess of the star Sirius. This star was important because its first appearance indicated that the annual flooding of the Nile would soon begin. She was an agricultural goddess and later was believed to be a mother goddess and was connected with Isis. She was the “Bringer of the New Year.”


Important biannual journal from Britain first published in 1973. At first it had a strong focus on Kenneth Grant’s version of Aleister Crowley’s Thelemic occultism. Later it introduced and focused on Tantra as presented by H.H. Shri Gurudev Mahendranath. This tradition is still an important focus of Tantric occultists and mystics. A ritual by Mahendranath appears in Ecstasy Through Tantra.

Sparrow's Tongue

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Knotweed.


Roman goddess of hope. She is called “the last goddess” because when it seems like everything is lost, she is the last goddess to turn to. She also represents hope for marriages, children, and good harvests.

Sri Vidya
Knowledge or study of the Sri Yantra.

St. George
A popular hero in the English death/rebirth mummer’s play tradition. The patron saint of England is technically no longer a saint, but he is still popular with the British people. His saint’s day is on or around May 1.

Stag God

A version of the generic Horned God found in numerous Pagan cultures, especially where primary sources of meat included animals such as the deer or elk. A similar form of the Horned God, usually shown with much shorter horns, was the Bull God. The Stag God survived in Celtic Pagan religion far longer than the Bull God. 

Standing Stones
Megalithic stone structures such as Stonehenge.

A stone or wooden oblong slab, generally taller than wider, usually erected for funerary or commemorative functions. They usually feature names and titles of an honored person and this may be carved into or painted on the object. There are many famous ones found in archeological research. For followers of Aleister Crowley, the most famous of these objects is the Stele of Revealing.

Stele of Revealing
An Egyptian funerary stele that signifies the beginning of the Aeon of Horus and which shows the three Gods of Thelmic cosmology associated with the three chapters of the Book of the Law: Nuit, Hadit, and Ra-Hoor-Khuit.


The name, meaning "Hateful River," of one of the five rivers in Greek mythology that surround Hades. The other four rivers are the Acheron ("River of Woe"), the Cocytus ("River of Wailing"), the Lethe ("River of Forgetfulness"), and the Pyriphlegethon ("The Fiery River").

A type of female demon said to steal men’s souls by appearing as a beautiful woman and then seducing them. They are also said to cause men’s “wet dreams.”


The burning of an incense, often made of herbs, during rituals and spells. Originally a term for a medical practice of burning herb near the body. Still practiced in some forms of traditional Asian medicine. See: moxibustion.

(Noun) Anything related to a non-physical world, such as a ghost, demon, divinity, etc. (Adj.) A manifestation on the physical plane of something from a non-physical world.

One of the oldest spiritual symbols in the world, possibly going back as far as 12,000 B.C.E. It consists of an equal armed cross with the ends of the arms bent at 90°, giving the impression that it is spinning either clockwise or counterclockwise, depending upon how it is drawn. The word itself is Sanskrit and first appears in the English language in 1871; however, the symbol has been found in ancient cultures all over the world, including pre-Christian Europe and among early Native American tribes. From the 1880s to the 1920s it became a popular motif in Western culture.

The Swastika is found all over India, where it is said to represent the Sun’s rays, the involution and evolution of the universe, and just good luck. Some, however, believe it is only good luck when shown in a clockwise-spinning direction.

The belief in the superiority of the German “Aryan” race by mystical and political leaders in the early 20th century led to the adoption of the symbol as representative of the Nazi party in 1935. The horrors of Nazi practices resulted in a shunning of the symbol in countries where it was not previously widespread. Some people are trying to reintroduce the symbol by explaining its spiritual and symbolic value while denouncing the Nazi’s subversion of the original meanings.

Swine's Snout

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dandelion leaves.


Something forbidden by religion or culture. They may be written or unwritten and their enforcement varies. One of the commandments of Judaism makes murder a taboo. The eating of shrimp is also a Taboo among orthodox Jews. In some Wiccan traditions, the killing of fertile female animals is a taboo, as is the “outing” of another person as a Wiccan without that person’s permission.

The angel of chastity and purification. Tahariel is the angel to call on when you need a respite from everyday relationships, and seek a greater association with the Divine. This time can be short or long, but will purify your body, mind, heart and soul.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the stem of a plant.

Tears of a Hamadryas Baboon

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Dill Juice.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Pine Cones.

The angel who looks after writers, artists, sculptors, and musicians. He can be invoked by these people whenever they need help in their creative activities.

The angel responsible for pregnancy and who traditionally assists Gabriel in instructing the unborn child before it is born.

Angelic member of the choir of Thrones. He can be invoked to help new business ventures. Traditionally, he was invoked to protect ships heaing out to sea with precious cargoes. The best way to call on Teoael is to write him a letter explaining exactly what you desire.

Small boxes containing scrolls with prayers written on them. They are worn by male Jews during certain prayers being held on by leather straps in a symbolic fashion.


Greek Titan goddess. Originally a sea goddess, she is the essence of the source of fresh water and oversees important rivers.

The angel responsible for trust and fidelity in all loving relationships. You should call on Tezalel if you have any concerns about the quality of your relationship.

The Morrigan

Also known as Morrighan, Morrigu, or Morgan, she was a Celtic goddess of strife, battle and fertility. Because she could appear as a single goddess or as a trio of goddesses (the members of the trio vary in different myths), she is called The Morrigan. She can take the form of a crow flying above warriors, although she has also been described as taking the form of a wolf, cow, or eel. Although the reference to the cow implies she is a goddess of fertility, she is more often described in ways that make her comparable to the German Valkyries.


Greek Titan goddess of sight and light. She married Hyperion and gave birth to three children: Helios (Sun), Eos (Dawn) and Selene (Moon).

The angelic prince of love. Not surprisingly, he is associated with the planet Venus. You should call on him if you want to attract love into your life. Theliel will not make a specific person fall in love with you, as this might not be in the best interest of both parties. However, he will create situations where you can meet people who are suitable candidates.

(Ancient Egyptian Djehuti) The ancient Egyptian god of knowledge, magic, speech and writing, god of the moon and prim minister of Heaven…Thoth was often equated with the Greek god Hermes, and from the fusion emerged Hermes Trismegistus, “Hermes the Thrice Great,” the legendary founder of Hermeticism.

The Thrones are the third-highest ranking of angels. They are sometimes called Wheels, as Ezekiel, the biblical prophet, saw them as fiery wheels. They are angels of justice. Their task is to advise God when he makes important decisions.


Literally, the "Little Good Angel." In Voodoo, the soul is seen as having two parts. The Ti-Bon-Ange is the part of the soul that has your individuality and personal qualities. It leaves the body when sleeping so you can dream. It also leaves the body during rituals of possession so a Loa can take over the body. The other part of the soul is the Gros-Bon-Ange.

Titan's Blood

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Wild Lettuce.


Although similar in appearance to a frog, toads, like cats, have been considered a traditional pet of Witches. This was a mixed blessing for Witches during the 14th century. Toads eat bugs, and Witches who had toads and cats around the house didn’t suffer from the bubonic plague or “Black Death” that killed so many Christians (who were busy exterminating both cats and toads). Unfortunately, having toads and cats could be considered a sign of being a Witch and lead to persecution. 


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Toadflax or Sage.

A mythic stone that supposedly has magical powers, it is found in the head of a large toad. It supposedly can be used to detect poison by changing its color. It can also protect newborns and their mothers from the powers of fairies.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means a leaf.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means a flower petal.

The first five books of the Tanach or Jewish Bible. Mystics believe that much of it is in Kabalistic codes.

Totem Animal

Usually discovered during some form of astral or shamanic journeying, this is a spirit guide in the form of an animal. However, the totem animal chooses to accompany you on such journeys, you do not choose it, but can choose to accept its company, information, and guidance. Thus, it is more of a partnership. This concept comes from shamanic traditions such as those practiced by Native Americans. 

(toh-oo-tah) - A tribe or kindred of people who come together regularly. They form a local community. A congregation of people who meet regularly on a monthly basis, or at least four times a year to celebrate Celtic festivals.


Any geometric figure consisting of three straight sides. Often used to represent spiritual triads. A triangle with one point down was used to represent goddess energy while a triangle with one point up was used to represent masculine or god energy. This popular association in India was either discovered separately or brought into the Greco-Roman empire. In the Middle East, the six-pointed star formed through an intersection of one upward and one downward pointing triangle eventually became the symbol of the Jewish people.

Tuatha de Danann
(Pronounced “too-ah dje dahnahn”) The People of the Goddess Danu—a race of gods and goddesses who made up virtually the whole of the Irish and Scottish Celtic pantheon.

A Scottish Gaelic term that literally means “northward.” Usually taken to be synonymous with Widdershins or counter-clockwise.

("TWOAN-etar"): Finnish goddess of the underworld.

Tutelary Deity
See Patron deity.

("TOO-il-eekey"): Finnish forest goddess. Called upon to insure abundance of game.

The leader of the Celtic religious movement.

An ancient Celtic god, son of Noudons, in a group of great epic tales and romances called the Fenian cycle. Uindos is also called Cernunnos (Greek). Most famous incarnation is as Finn Mac Cumhail.

A mystical creature representing purity. There are differing descriptions, ranging from a simple horse or goat with a single horn (sometimes spiraling) from its forehead, to a creature with the head and body of a horse, the tail of a lion, the hind legs of a wild stag, and a thin horn tapering to a point that grew from its forehead. It was believed that only a virgin woman could ride it, and the single horn has obvious archetypal male meanings.

Unicorn's Horn

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means False Unicorn Root or True Unicorn Root.

Unwritten Kabalah
That part of the Kabalah that deals with correspondences on the Tree of Life.

(“Fire of God”) The archangel of prophecy. He is also Regent of the Sun and in charge of all natural phenomena such as floods and earthquakes. In Jewish legend, Uriel warned Noah of the imminent flood. He is also the overseer of Hell. Uriel can be called upon to help with creative activities.


Although many old recipes called for various bodily secretions, "urine" was often a code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri meaning Dandelion.

(“God’s Power”) Uzziel provides faith and hope in our darkest moments. Uzziel is the angel to invoke when everything seems hopeless and there seems no point in carrying on.

A goddess in the Tibetan Tantric spiritual system.

Angel who provides peace, contentment, and understanding. When life is overly hectic or tumultuous, Valoel can provide the necessary peace of mind to handle the situation.

A majestic, semi-evergreen (the leaves thin from October until January) native to the eastern side of the Mediterranean. A substance known as “valonia” is made from the cups of the tree’s acorns. After being dried, the cups are ground and the result is used for tanning and dyeing, although it has also been used in the creation of magickal inks.

("VAHM-mah-tar"): Finnish goddess of pain and disease. Helps to overcome and go through illness.


Ancient Norse term with multiple meanings. The Vardlokkers were said to guard the gates of knowledge, referring to keeping spiritual knowledge from those unworthy to receive it. They were also said to be able to ward off evil spirits or demons, thus being types of Guardians. Due to the sound, some claim it is associated with the term “Warlock.”

Angel belonging to the Choir of Dominions and who looks after lawyers, judges, and courts of law. He can be invoked in any matters concerning justice, honesty, and fairness.

("VAYL-ah-moe"): Finnish water goddess.

(Also Varchiel) An angel who is one of the regents of the choir of Powers. He provides love, affection, and friendship. You should call on Verchiel when you are experiencing difficulties with family or good friends.

Vesica Pisces
A figure made by the intersection of two circles of the same size. The center of each circle lies on the circumference of the other circle. The result is an almond-shaped linear figure shown in many religious paintings. The term is Latin for “fish bladder.” Because the shape mirrors that of the external female genitalia, it is said to represent the feminine aspects of the Divine.

1) The traditional or modern magickal associations of properties and powers attributed to herbs, stones, and creatures.

2) In the nine fold celestial hierarchy of the Christian study of angels, the seventh highest order.

The fifth-highest rank of angels in Dionysius’ hierarchy. The are in charge of all natural laws to keep the universe working as it should. Because of this, they are also responsible for miracles that go against these laws. Archangel Michael is Prince Regent of the choir of Virtues. The other regents include Barbiel, Peliel, Raphael, and Uzziel.

The cardinal virtues of ancient Greece were philosophy, justice, prudence, fortitude, and temperance. Justice, Strength, and Temperance are represented in the Major Arcana of the Tarot.

One-third of the major triumvirate of Hindu deities, Vishnu represents the qualities of preservation of life and existence.


The sustainer or preserver God in the Hindu trinity. Vishnu is believed to have incarnated in many forms, most notably as Krishna and Rama.

Voodoo Doll
A small effigy of a person, often very primitive in design and linked to that person through a drop of blood or a lock of the hair being included in the doll. Its usual purpose is to control or cause harm to the person it’s linked to.

Angel who is the Divine Scribe that looks after the sacred books in Heaven. He is believed to be the wisest angel of all. Vretil can be invoked whenever you seek wisdom or insight.


An invisible station on the astral plane, set at the four quarters or cardinal directions: East, South, West, and North. Each station is occupied by a group of angels who are commanded by an Archangel. Although most spiritual paths recognize but one Watchtower in each of the cardinal directions, some traditions contend that there are Watchtowers at the cross quarters as well as at the quarters. 

An element associated with the west quarter. It is one of the four elements. Water is also a symbol of regeneration, renovation, and dissolution. In occultism beings known as Undines are creatures of this element. Traditionally, the element of Water is associated with the color green—in many modern Wiccan/Witchcraft Traditions the color is blue.

Wax Dolls

A poppet made of wax or paraffin.

See: poppet.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Rue.

Weasel Snout

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Yellow Dead Nettles or Yellow Archangel.


A person who supposedly transforms into a wolf. See Lycanthrope.

White Man's Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means the Common Plantain.

Wild Hunt

An ancient European myth involving seeing a group of phantom-like hunter or hunters (often considered to be the dead or perhaps fairy beings), in full hunter’s garb, riding wildly through the night. In some Wiccan traditions this is interpreted as the Horned God on Samhain madly seeking the souls of the recent dead. Because Samhain is a time “between the worlds” (and thus outside of time), He sometimes neglects to differentiate between the living and dead. Some Pagan traditions reenact the Wild Hunt in a sort of semi-Dionysian and shamanic hunt.

An old superstition says it’s unlucky to make a will, as this is likely to speed up your demise. Wills used to be read over the person’s coffin, presumable to give them an opportunity to protest if the relatives seemed unhappy with it.

Sailors had a vested interest in encouraging the wind when they were becalmed. Scratching the mast of the ship was one method. An alternative method, though fraught with danger, was to whistle softly. Whistling loudly risked causing a gale. You could also pay the elements for a wind by tossing a coin overboard.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means a plant leaf.

Wishing Well
A wishing well is a pond or well that people throw coins or stones into, believing that any wish they make will be granted. This is one of the most ancient of all superstitions. On the night of a full moon, young girls can toss a coin into a wishing well and see an image of their future husbands in the water of the well.

Witch Doctor
Name for a tribal magician or spiritual leader who uses various magickal and/or spiritual means to help cure diseases and psychic or magickal attacks. Also used in a derogatory fashion to describe someone who uses non-standard medical techniques.

Wolf Claw

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Club Moss.

Wolf Foot

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Bugle Weed.

Wolf's Milk

Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means Euphorbia.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri.It means Peony.


Code used in spells and recipes by Pagans, ancient doctors, alchemists, etc. going back to the Greek Magical Papyri. It means, "thin roots."


A term meaning Christian. The “X” at the beginning is actually the appearance of the Greek letter “chi” which was traditionally pronounced “ch” and to early Christians was a representative of the name of Christ. It was amplified as being an image of the cross upon which Christ was supposedly crucified. Thus, the term means Christian. Some Christians, not knowing the history of the chi to early Christians believe it is a way to lessen the value of the Christian religion and have come to dislike the traditionally sacred term.


The Pentagrammaton. Formed by adding the Hebrew letter Shin, associated with the Holy Spirit, to the center of the Tetragrammaton (YHVH). An Anglicized version of the Greek Jesu, itself a version of the Hebrew or Aramaic Yehahshuah. It was used by some Renaissance Christian Kabbalists as the supreme word of power in their magick and worship. Some modern Christians also use it as a name for Jesus but usually do not understand it's source.

Angel of bereavement. He can be called upon for comfort when a loved one dies. He is one of God’s chief messengers.

Yellow Emperor

Huangdi (reigned circa 2697-2598 b.c.e.) is regarded as the initiator of Chinese civilization. The color yellow represented earth energy in the Chinese five element system. He is attributed with many inventions, including everything from carts and boats to varioius math calculations and a game of football. Huangdi figures prominently in the medical and sexological teachings of Taoism. A book attributed to him and known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine is one of the basic texts of traditional Chinese medical practice, including acupuncture. The "Handbooks of Sex," some of the oldest books on love, were supposedly written by him nearly five thousand years ago. Upon his death he is said to have ascended to heaven because he "perfected himself through practicing the Sexual Secrets."

A term used to name a cryptozoological creature of Tibet, also known as the Abominable Snowman. The description of the Yeti is either like that of a large ape, a human-sized ape, or a dwarf-like being. A staple of Tibetan and Nepalese myth and lore, it was first brought to the attention of people in the West in the 1920s when British explorers to Mt. Everest saw strange footprints in the snow that were identified by locals as belonging to a strange creature.

Angel who can be invoked to help people improve their memory.

(Also Tzadkiel; “Righteousness of God”) Ruler of Jupiter, regent of Sagittarius, and believed to be Chief of the Choir of Dominions. Zadkiel is also the Angel of Divine Justice. Because of his association with Jupiter, Zadkiel provides abundance, benevolence, mercy, forgiveness, tolerance, compassion, prosperity, happiness and good fortune. According to Jewish legend, it was Zadkiel who prevented Abraham from sacrificing his son, Isaac. You should call on Zadkiel for help whenever you experience financial or legal problems.

(“God’s Righteousness”) In Hebrew lore, Zagzagel is the angel of the burning bush who gave advice to Moses (Exodus 3:2). Zagzagel advised and taught Moses, and was one of the three angels who escorted his soul to heaven. Zagzagel is believed to rule the fourth heaven. In his spare time, he also teaches other angels. You should call on Zagzagel whenever you need knowledge or wisdom.

In Haitian Voodoo, a person who has been brought back from the dead as a robotic automaton to do the bidding of the Voodoo practitioner responsible for the resurrection. For many decades considered a myth or someone entranced, in 1982 ethnobotanist Wade Davis investigated and discovered that there is a type of poison that can give the appearance of death and harms the mind such that a person, for a time, acts like the prototypical zombie. He wrote about this in the groundbreaking book, The Serpent and the Rainbow.

Angel who is the Prince Regent of the choir of Principalities. He also looks after the sign of Libra and is ruler of September. Zuriel can be invoked to create harmony and accord.

The concept of chakras never really sat well with me. I could certainly understand having different centers of energy in the body; you don't even have to be into metaphysics to get that. Just from a scientific point of view, when studying the human body, each of the systems functions very differently: nervous, circulatory, digestive, respiratory,... read this article
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